As any self-respecting Brazilian will tell you, brigadeiros do not originate in Portugal; they were created in Brazil and are one of their most recognised sweets. However, knowing what a sweet tooth the Portuguese have, it is not surprising that this soft, rather gooey and very sweet version of a chocolate truffle has made its way across the Atlantic and is now a very popular sweet in Portugal. In fact, in Portugal the brigadeiros recipe is often used to make a chocolate cake (bolo brigadeiro) and can be found on the dessert menu in many a Portuguese restaurant, which is where I first discovered it.
The unusual name of the brigadeiro (which means ‘brigadier’ in English) is said to come from Brigadier Eduardo Gomes who ran as a presidential candidate in the Brazilian elections of 1945. He was a handsome bachelor and was popular with his female supporters, who organised fundraising events for his campaign at which sweets made of condensed milk, cocoa powder and butter were sold with the name ‘brigadeiros’. Although the brigadeiro recipe is associated with a Rio de Janeiro confectioner, Heloisa Nabuco de Oliveira, it is likely that a version of these sweets existed before 1945, as sweetened condensed milk was widely used in Brazilian sweets and desserts during the war and post-war years when sugar was rationed. However, it was the association with Gomes’ (unsuccessful) presidential campaign that gave brigadeiros their name and place in history.
The basic recipe usually contains condensed milk, cocoa powder, butter and chocolate vermicelli, but I prefer to follow the luxury recipe shared by the Portuguese chef Nuno Mendes, which contains dark chocolate (with a minimum of 70% cocoa solids), double cream and caramelised condensed milk. The chocolate balls are rolled in the grated dark chocolate rather than in chocolate vermicelli making them a proper grown-up version of the brigadeiro.
One of the many popular Portuguese sweet pastries is made of puff pastry in the shape of an isosceles trapezium (I never thought I would be typing that in a blog!) filled with a sweet creamy mixture of egg yolk and sugar and topped with a crunchy layer of icing. It has the intriguing name of jesuíta (Jesuit) and, like many Portuguese sweet pastries, there is a story behind it. Its origins in Portugal date back to 1892, when the Confeitaria Moura in Santo Tirso (a city between Porto and Braga) was started by Joaquim Ferreira de Moura. He employed a Spanish pastry chef who had previously worked for a community of Jesuit priests in Bilbao and it is thought that he brought the recipe for jesuítas with him to Santo Tirso, hence the name. However, this is conjecture and it is possible that the name comes from the simple fact that the icing on the pastry, which is made of a mixture of icing sugar, egg white and cinnamon, is a similar colour to the light brown habits that the Jesuit monks wore. As with many Portuguese egg and sugar-filled sweet pastries, it is very likely that the recipe originated in a convent or monastery where the nuns and monks used egg whites to starch their habits and therefore had a lot of eggs yolks left over. The Confeitaria Moura is still considered the place that makes the most genuine jesuítas, as the original recipe from 1892 has been handed down through the generations of the Moura family and is a closely guarded secret. The recipe has been adapted by other pastry chefs to include other ingredients, such as adding a sprinkling of flaked or chopped almonds on top of the icing or even adding them to the filling, which is my preference. Continuing along the religious theme, there is also a bite-size version of the jesuíta, which is called a seminarista (seminarian) and a larger version called a cardeal (cardinal)! By the way, the jesuíta isn’t really anything like a custard slice, but there are a couple of similarities; in both the egg-based filling is sandwiched between two layers of pastry and both are topped by icing, which is why I have called it Portugal’s answer to a custard slice.
The Oriente Metro station at Parque das Nações was opened in 1998 to coincide with the Expo ’98 (Lisbon International Exposition). As part of the international aspect of the Exposition, 11 renowned artists from various countries around the world were invited to create artworks for the walls of the underground station based on the subject ‘The Oceans, a legacy for the Future’, which was the theme of Expo ’98. Here are just three of the 11 works, which like all the contributions, are very different in terms of style and content, but all manage to address the subject of the sea.
The brightly-coloured tiled cityscape entitled ‘Submersão da Atlântida’ (‘Submersion of Atlantis’, 1998) by the Austrian Expressionist painter and architect Hundertwasser (Friedrich Stowasser, 1928-2000) is a huge mural depicting the mythical island of Atlantis that was said to have been submerged into the Atlantic Ocean. Atlantis is depicted as a large modern city of bright, bold-coloured skyscrapers against a black background, all leaning off-centre, which gives it another-worldly feeling. The angular shapes of the skyscrapers are broken up at regular intervals by large oval-shaped flying objects, suggesting a futuristic city rather than one of the past.
‘No Mar da Palha’ (‘On Mar da Palha’, 1998), by the Australian artist Arthur Boyd (1920-1999), is a large tile-panel seascape painting of the Mar da Palha water basin in the Tejo Estuary near Parque das Nações. In contrast to Hundertwasser’s bold colours, Boyd’s Impressionist painting is in soft shades of blue, white, brown, yellow and green, with just a tiny splash of bright red in the centre of the painting to suggest something on the water.
António Ségui (b.1934) is an Argentinean artist, whose work for Oriente station, ‘Os Oceanos’ (‘The Oceans’, 1998) straddles the two tiled end walls either side of the track. His very unique Satirical style consists of many overlapping repeated characters and objects, which although may appear to be the same, are all unique. One recurring character is a gentleman (or different gentlemen) wearing a suit and tie and a formal hat (a fedora, trilby or homburg), and there has been much speculation as to who this character is; is he an Everyman figure or even the artist himself? In the work for the Oriente Metro station the images in the painting are all connected to the sea, including manly-featured mermaids, divers, boats, lighthouses, fish and other sea creatures, all of which make the besuited men appear completely out of place and, as a result, give a sensation of them being comical or even sinister.
Marquês de Pombal Square in Lisbon is famous for the large statue of the eponymous hero who rebuilt Lisbon after it was destroyed in the earthquake of 1755 and I have written about Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, better known as the Marquis of Pombal (Marquês de Pombal), and the statue dedicated to him in another article, but many people don’t realise that the adjacent Metro station also celebrates his life and times. When the Marquês de Pombal Metro station was remodelled in 1995, a new section was built for the yellow line and the Portuguese artist Menez (Maria Inês Ribeiro da Fonseca, 1926-1995) was invited to decorate it. The resulting artwork lines the walls of the entrance hall. For this commission, Menez chose to recreate the style of the fashionable blue and white decorative tiles depicting scenes of daily life of the 18th century, to tell the story of Portuguese history during the lifetime of the Marquis of Pombal (1699-1782). The scenes are like a comic strip of the main events and people of the 18th century and depict images such as the earthquake, the Marquis of Pombal with his plans for the reconstruction of Lisbon; the architects and engineers who assisted him; King José I (who, during his reign from 1750-1777, was happy to let his Prime Minister, the Marquis of Pombal, run the country); and other episodes from the Age of Enlightenment, which in Portugal is associated with the Marquis and his liberal reforms, which included reforming education, the law, the army, agriculture, industry and trade and abolishing slavery.
Picoas Metro station is notable for two stylistically different, but equally impressive, works of art. One is incorporated into the station exterior at street level and the other lines the platforms of the station. Together they make Picoas one of the most endearing Metro stations in Lisbon.
As you enter the station at the entrance on Rua Andrade Corvo you could be forgiven for thinking that you were in Paris, as the decoration around the entrance is that of a stereotypical Paris Metro station, with decorative cast-iron railings and a distinctive ‘Metropolitano’ sign, in the Paris Metro Metropolitanes font, arching over the entrance. The design is based on that of early-20th century Paris Metro stations, which were created by the Art Nouveau architect and designer Hector Guimard (1867-1942), and it was donated to the Lisbon Metro by the Paris Metro in 1995.
The tiled panels that line the platforms of the station were added in 1994, when the station was remodelled. The 12 panels were created by the painter and sculptor Martins Correia (1910-1999) as an homage to the city of Lisbon. The large abstract images in black and white with splashes of colour depict aspects of the city, including the coat of arms and architectural features. But it is the images of the working-class women of Lisbon that are the most striking, in particular, the tall, dignified black silhouettes of the traditional female fish vendors (varinas) with baskets of fish (canastras) on their heads, to which Correia masterfully adds bold splashes of colour, bringing a joyfulness to the scenes.
The Praça de Mouzinho de Albuquerque in Porto is better known as the Rotunda da Boavista (the Boavista Roundabout), as it is in the middle of a huge roundabout where Avenida da Boavista, Rua de 5 de Outubro, Avenida da França, Rua de Nossa Senhora de Fátima, Rua de Júlio Dinis, Rua de Caldas Xavier and Rua da Meditação all meet. The park is named after Joaquim Augusto Mouzinho de Albuquerque, an army officer of the late-19th century who is considered a hero, as he served in the Portuguese colonies and was governor of India and Mozambique at a time when other European powers were threatening Portuguese control of these countries. It is surprising therefore that the monument in the middle of the park isn’t dedicated to Mouzinho de Alburquerque, but instead, the tall, hard-to-miss column topped by a sculpture of a lion crushing an eagle, the Monumento aos Heróis da Guerra Peninsular (Monument to the Heroes of the Peninsular War), is a memorial to Porto’s victory over the French during the Peninsular War in 1809.
The war began in 1807 when the Napoleonic French army aided by Spanish troops invaded Portugal. The Portuguese royal family, including Queen Maria I and the Prince Regent João (later to become King João VI), plus many members of the nobility, fled to Brazil leaving the country without any leadership and the Portuguese were unable to put up much resistance to the invasion. This changed in the spring of 1808 when a Spanish revolt against French occupation in Spain led to the Spanish troops being withdrawn from Portugal to join the fight against the French, which in turn sparked a revolt by the Portuguese forces against the French troops in the north of Portugal. However, in February 1809 French troops under the command of Marshal Soult invaded northern Portugal and on 28th March 1809 the Portuguese army fought against the French in what would later be known as the First Battle of Porto. This battle was a huge loss for the Portuguese and was made doubly tragic by the collapse of a bridge, the Ponte das Barcas (Bridge of Barges, a pontoon bridge across the River Douro made up of barges linked together by steel cables which was located near the site of the current Dom Luís Bridge), in which it is estimated that over four thousand civilians who were attempting to escape the city drowned. Things started to improve in April 1809 when the British came to the aid of the Portuguese and they formed the Anglo-Portuguese Army under the command of General Wellesley (who later became the Duke of Wellington). A victory at the Battle of Grijó (in Vila Nova de Gaia) on 11th May, immediately followed by a decisive victory at the Second Battle of Porto (also known as the Battle of the Douro) on 12th May 1809 saw the retreat of the French army into Spain and the liberation of the city of Porto.
The monument to commemorate these events is a remarkable piece of sculpture that works on an aesthetic as much as on a patriotic level. It was originally designed by the architect José Marques da Silva (who also designed Porto’s São Bento station and the Serralves Villa) and the sculptor António Alves de Sousa. Work began on the monument in 1909 but it wasn’t completed until 1951 due to financial difficulties (it was eventually completed by Marques da Silva’s daughter and son-in-law, who took over the project after the death of Marques da Silva in 1947). The top of the 45-metre-high Neo-classical monument is a clearly symbolic representation of the strength of the joint British and Portuguese armies (symbolized by the lion) over the French imperial army (symbolized by the eagle). Lower down the granite column are relief figures of the soldiers who led the fight against the French, while behind them are carved scenes of the war. At the bottom of the monument there are large-scale detailed depictions in bronze of some of the events of the war, including the tragedy of the collapse of the Ponte das Barcas and Victory personified as a woman holding a flag and a sword and leading the people of Porto in triumph.
The Parque das Nações (Nations’ Park) is Lisbon’s newest neighbourhood and revels in its modernity. It is located approximately 8km north-east of the centre of Lisbon, on the Tejo Estuary and in stark contrast to the historical centre of Lisbon it is marked by its modern architecture, art and open spaces. It all began in the 1990s when an abandoned, derelict and polluted industrial park was chosen as the site for the Expo ’98 (Lisbon International Exposition). Everything on the site was built from scratch and allowed renowned architects to design creative new buildings aligned to the theme of Expo ’98, ‘The Oceans, a legacy for the Future’. As well as looking to the future, the theme made reference to Portugal’s past as a seafaring nation and combined Expo ’98 with the celebration of the 500th anniversary of Vasco da Gama’s voyage to India in 1498. Many of the buildings are directly named after Vasco da Gama or have a link to the sea and the Age of Discovery.
The Torre Vasco da Gama (Vasco da Gama Tower), designed by Leonor Janeiro and Nick Jacobs, which at 145m is the tallest building in Lisbon. Built on the site of a former oil refinery, it is designed to look like the sail of a caravel (the type of ship sailed by Vasco da Gama). It originally had a public restaurant and observation deck at the top of the tower, but is now part of the luxury Myriad Hotel and is no longer open to the public.
The Ponte Vasco da Gama (Vasco da Gama Bridge) was designed by a team of French and Portuguese architects, namely Michel Virlogeux, Alain Montois, Charles Lavigne and Armando Rito. The bridge goes across the Tejo River from the suburb of Sacavém on the north bank to the suburbs of Montijo and Alcochete on the south bank and is the longest bridge in Europe at 17km in length.
The Centro Vasco da Gama (Vasco da Gama Shopping Centre) and the twin towers Torre São Gabriel and Torre São Rafael were designed by José Quintela. The two towers are named after two of Vasco da Gama’s ships and the top of the towers are built to look like the prow of a boat and. Each tower is 110m in height and made up of 25 floors of residential flats.
The Pavilhão Atlântico (Atlantic Pavilion, also known as Altice Arena) is a large multipurpose arena designed by Regino Cruz with a roof of wooden beams based on the inverted framework of a 16th-century ship and which appears to be a cross between a marine creature and a spaceship.
The Oceanário de Lisboa (Lisbon’s Oceanarium) consists of two buildings. The original building, the Oceans’ Building, was designed by the American architect Peter Chermayeff and is surrounded by water and accessed by a bridge to give the impression of boarding a boat about to embark on a voyage. The main aquarium contains over 100 species from all the oceans of the world. The newer Sea Building designed by Pedro Campos Costa is covered in ceramic tiles created by the Spanish ceramicist Toni Cumella which represent fish scales.
Other buildings may have less of a connection to the theme of oceans, but are important in terms of modern architecture.
Gare do Oriente (Oriente station) is one of the most emblematic structures in the Parque das Nações. It was designed by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava the pièce de résistance being the stark skeletal roof of steel and glass, with gothic-inspired arches and columns, which gives it the appearance of a modern cathedral.
Floating silently above the Parque das Nações are the cable cars which allow a bird’s eye view of the neighbourhood. They run between the two Telecabine Lisboa stations at the Vasco da Gama Tower (to the north) and the Oceanarium (to the south).
The Pavilhão do Conhecimento – Centro Ciência Viva (The Pavilion of Knowledge Science Centre) is an interactive science and technology museum. It was designed by the architect João Luís Carrilho da Graça along minimalist lines where visitors enter the museum along a dark corridor with walls containing mathematical symbols and then find themselves in a large bright foyer with walls made of aluminium-covered panels with cut-out ASCILL symbols (the universal computer language).
The Pavilhão de Portugal (Portugal Pavilion) is a building used for temporary exhibitions with a distinctive inverted canopy roof over the outdoor space, designed by Álvaro Siza Vieira.
The controversial Casino de Lisboa, which opened in 2006 in the former Pavilhão do Futuro building, which had stood empty for several years after Expo ’98. The original building was designed by Paula Santos, Rui Ramos and Miguel Guedes, but redesigned by Fernando Jorge Correia when it was turned into a casino. It is hard to miss the building with the words ‘Casino Lisboa’ in enormous diagonal letters across the black-glass front of the building.
On the outskirts of the Parque das Nações is a reminder of the area’s former industrial past, the Torre da Galp (Galp Tower), an oil tower which was part of a former oil refinery which has been preserved as a symbol of the area’s industrial past.
Art and sculpture in the Parque das Nações
The Expo ’98 Public Art Project has resulted in over 50 works of modern art and sculpture by famous Portuguese and international artists throughout the area. It is like a free open-air art gallery. Here are a small number of examples.
‘Gil’ (1998), pictured at the top of this article, is a loveable cartoon character with a wave for his hair, created by the sculptor Artur Moreira and the painter António Modesto, and who was the official mascot of Expo ’98. He is named ‘Gil’ as an homage to the 15th-century navigator Gil Eanes, who successfully sailed beyond the dangerous Cape Bojador on the West African coast in 1434.
‘Homenagem a Dom João II’ (‘Homage to King João II’, 1998) by Manuel Rosa depicts the king who ruled Portugal during the Age of Discovery as an abstract three-legged figure in bronze.
‘Lago das Tágides’ (‘Lake of the Tagus Nymphs, 1998’) by João Cutileiro is a marble sculpture of naked women in a pool of water, some lying in the water, some kicking their legs and others bathing, while an empty boat is nearby. The sculpture is a reference to a verse from Canto I of Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads) by Luís Vaz de Camões (1572) in which the narrator calls on the Tágides (the nymphs of the Tejo) to give him the voice to write an epic-poem about the Discoveries.
E vós, Tágides minhas, pois criado Tendes em mi um novo engheno ardente, Se sempre em verso humilde celebrado Foi de mi vosso rio alegremente, Dai-me agora um som alto e sublimado, Um estilo grandílico e corrente, Por que de vossas águas Febo ordene Que não tenham enveja às de Hipocrene.
[And you, my nymphs of the Tejo, you have created A new burning ingenuity in me, If ever your joyful river was celebrated In humble verse by me, Now give me a loud and sublime voice, In a style both grand and flowing, Because Phoebus orders your waters To not envy those of Hippocrene.] (Canto I, verse 4)
‘Haveráguas’ (‘There are waters’, 1998) by the Chilean artist Roberto Matta has been turned into a large tiled panel with surrealist images of people doing various activities on the sea.
‘O Homem Muralha’ (‘The Wall Man’, 2008) by the Angolan-born artist Pedro Pires is a sculpture in iron of five men, all versions of the same man, standing in slightly different poses. Each man is constructed of pixels and the sculptures give rise to questions of identity in the modern world.
For anyone who loves modern architecture and modern art, it is worth making the 25-minute journey from the centre of Lisbon to a place totally different from the historic areas, but still with a sense of Lisbon style!
The Parque das Nações is extremely well-served by public transport, so much so that it is possible to use it as a base when visiting Lisbon. Metro: Red line to Oriente station Mainline train: Oriente station for the Intercidades and Alfa Pendular lines to Coimbra, Porto, Braga, Guimarães, Viana do Castelo, Évora and Faro; the Renfe sleeper trains to Madrid and Hendaye; and the local lines running between Alverca and Sintra and Azambuja and Alcântara-Terra. Buses to and from Oriente station: 400, 705, 708, 725, 728, 744, 750, 759, 782 and 794
There is no denying that the Lx Factory in Lisbon’s Alcântara district, next to the iconic 25th April Bridge, has a vibrant hippy-chicness and creative energy about it and as a result it is very popular with both Lisboetas and tourists who want something a little different from the standard shopping centres. The Lx Factory (‘Lx’ is pronounced ‘el sheesh’ and comes from the abbreviation often used for Lisbon) is a 23,000m2 complex of shops, cafés, bars, restaurants and small businesses in a former industrial area of Lisbon, which from the 1840s housed textile manufacturing, food processing and printing companies until it was finally abandoned and fell into disrepair. In 2008 the site was revived as a new creative space with small (but expensive) independent shops, ranging from clothing, jewellery, cosmetics and eyewear to wine, canned fish, books, art and home décor, alongside restaurants selling dishes from around the world, including one located in the original factory canteen of the former printing company. Many of the buildings on the site are as they were when they were abandoned and this gives the place a certain grittiness. The Lx Factory really comes alive after dark when the bars become full of young Lisboetas on a night out and the atmosphere changes completely from that of the daytime. The independent spirit of this place makes it the perfect location for drag events which are run by a group of drag queens at a venue in the complex. There is even a hostel in the complex, the Dorm, which adds to the youthful, communal spirit.
In keeping with the bohemian vibe, the Lx Factory boasts a large variety of urban art throughout the complex (and in the separate, but similarly creative, Village Underground co-working community next door, which has shared workspaces made of double-decker buses and shipping containers). Many pieces are by respected urban artists, such as Bordalo II, Mário Belém, Hugo Makarov, Mariana Dias Coutinho and Derlon, that even people a bit too old to embrace the Lx Factory’s youth-centric nightlife scene can still enjoy in the daytime!
Lx Factory, Rua Rodrigues Faria 103,Lisbon Tram 15; buses 714, 727, 732, 751 (nearest stop Rua da Junqueira e Alcântara); train from Cais do Sodré or Cascais ( Alcântara-Mar station)
For me, Christmas isn’t Christmas without the familiar Christmas songs that we all know and love being played throughout December – and there are certainly a lot of songs to choose from in English-speaking countries! Christmas music is also important in the run-up to Christmas in Portugal, but it is true to say that there isn’t a large repertoire of Portuguese Christmas pop songs and those that there are don’t tend to get widely played. English-language Christmas songs, on the other hand, are played endlessly and Michael Bublé’s Christmas album, which has become the soundtrack to Christmas in so many countries, can be heard everywhere you go. However, away from the commercial centres, Portuguese Christmas music can be heard during the Christmas period; ranging from traditional religious songs to Portuguese versions of English-language songs. A small number of Portuguese popular artists have also recorded original Christmas pop songs in Portuguese in an attempt to emulate Bublé et al.
Traditional Portuguese Christmas carols
Traditional carols (Canções de Natal), many of which date from the 18th and 19th centuries, are often sung by adult and children’s choirs during the Christmas period and, like English Christmas carols, tell the story of the birth of Christ. There is an unsubstantiated theory that King João IV of Portugal, who was an accomplished composer, wrote ‘Adeste Fideles’ (‘O Come, All Ye Faithful’), and it is sometimes referred to as the ‘Portuguese hymn’. But music historians have suggested that is is unlikely that he wrote it and the nickname probably comes from the fact that it was performed at the Portuguese embassy in London at the end of the 18th-century (one of the few places in England at that time where Catholic services could be held). The carols below are a small selection of the many you may hear if you go to a Christmas concert in Portugal during the Christmas period. There are several different versions of many of the carols, with slightly different (or even completely different) lyrics as, unlike the English ones which have been standardized in the series of books Carols for Choirs, there is no definitive version of the Portuguese carols.
‘Alegrem-se os Céus e a Terra’ (‘The Heavens and Earth Rejoice’) is a carol dating from the 18th century which is thought to have originated from the Beira Baixa region. The carol tells us to sing with joy that Jesus is born.
[[Chorus] The heavens and earth rejoice / Let us sing with joy / The Holy Infant is born / Son of the Virgin Mary / Enter shepherds, enter / Through this holy doorway / Come and adore the child / Lying on a bed of straw / [Chorus] / In Bethlehem at midnight / Midnight on Christmas Eve / Jesus was born in a manger / Wonderous without equal / [Chorus] / Oh, what a Child so wonderful / Oh, that He is so merciful / Oh, how He is so much like His mother the Virgin / [Chorus]]
[Chorus] Alegrem-se os céus e a terra Cantemos com alegria Já nasceu o Deus Menino Filho da Virgem Maria
Entrai pastorinhos, entrai Por este portal sagrado Vinde adorar o menino Numas palhinhas deitado
[Chorus] Em Belém à meia-noite Meia-noite de Natal Nasceu Jesus num presépio Maravilha sem igual
[Chorus] Ai que Menino tão Belo Ai que tanto graça tem Ai que tanto se parece com a Virgem Sua mãe
‘Linda Noite de Natal’(‘Beautiful Christmas Night’) is a traditional Christmas carol originating from the Algarve region. It tells of the journey to Bethlehem and the arrival at the stable where Jesus was born.
[Beautiful Christmas night / Night of great joy / Joseph was walking / Along with Mary most holy / [Chorus] Beautiful night, beautiful night / Beautiful Christmas night / Beautiful night, beautiful night / Beautiful Christmas night / He was walking to Bethlehem / To get there by daylight / But when they arrived there / Everyone was asleep / [Chorus] / They knocked on many doors / But no one helped them / They were given somewhere to stay / Where the blessed ox were sleeping / [Chorus]]
Linda noite de Natal, Noite de grande alegria. Caminhava São José Mais a sagrada Maria.
[Chorus] Linda noite, linda noite, Linda noite de Natal. Linda noite, linda noite, Linda noite de Natal.
Caminhavam p’ra Belém Para lá chegar de dia, Mas quando eles lá chegaram Já toda a gente dormia.
Bateram a muitas portas Mas ninguém lhes acudia, Foram dar a uma choupana Onde o boi bento dormia.
‘O Menino está Dormindo’ (‘The Baby is Sleeping’) is a traditional carol dating from the late-18th or early-19th century and originated in Évora in the Alentejo. The lyrics tell of the Baby Jesus sleeping while the angels sing in celebration of his birth.
[The Infant is sleeping / Naked on a bed of straw. [Repeat] / The angels are singing / ‘For love, a child so poor.’ [Repeat] / The Infant is sleeping / In the arms of the Virgin pure. [Repeat] / The angels are singing / ‘Hosanna in the highest!’ [Repeat] / The Infant is sleeping / In the arms of Joseph. [Repeat] / The angels are singing / ‘Gloria Tibi Domine! [Repeat] / The Infant is sleeping / A sleep of profound love. [Repeat] / The angels are singing / ‘Long live the Saviour of the world!’[Repeat]]
O Menino está dormindo Nas palhinhas despidinho. [Repeat] Os anjos Lhe estão cantando ‘Por amor, tão pobrezinho.’ [Repeat]
O Menino está dormindo Nos braços da Virgem pura. [Repeat] Os anjos Lhe estão cantando ‘Hossana lá na altura!’ [Repeat]
O Menino está dormindo Nos braços de São José. [Repeat] Os anjos Lhe estão cantando ‘Gloria Tibi Domine!’[Repeat]
O Menino está dormindo Um sono de amor profundo. [Repeat] Os anjos Lhe estão cantando ‘Viva o Salvador do mundo!’ [Repeat]
‘Natal de Elvas’(‘Elvas Christmas’) dating from the late-19th or early-20th century and originating from Elvas in the Alentejo. The song is about someone who goes to visit the Baby Jesus in the stable and asks why the child is crying.
[I shall go to the manger / And sit in a small corner / To see how the Holy Infant / Was born there so poor. / Oh, my Baby Jesus, / What is up with you, why are you crying? / My mother gave me a kiss, / I cry so that she gives me more. / Our lady is making stockings / With yarn made of light, / The ball of wool is the full moon, / The stockings are for Jesus. / The Infant cries and cries, He cries for good reason: / They made him a short bed / He has his little feet on the ground.]
Eu hei-de ir ao presépio A assentar-me num cantinho A ver com’o Deus Menino Nasceu lá tão pobrezinho. Ó meu Menino Jesus, Que tendes, por que chorais? Deu-me minha mãe um beijo, Choro por que me dê mais.
Nossa Senhora faz meia Com linha feita de luz; O novelo é lua cheia, As meias são pra Jesus.
O Menino chora, chora, Chora por muita razão: Fizeram-lhe a cama curta Tem os pezinhos no chão.
‘Noite Feliz’(‘Joyful Night’) is sung to the tune of ‘Silent Night’.
[Joyful night, joyful night / Oh Lord, God of love / A poor boy, born in Bethlehem / Here in the cave, our dear Jesus / Sleep in peace, oh Jesus / Sleep in peace, oh Jesus / Joyful night, joyful night / Oh, Jesus, God of light / How kind is your heart / That you wanted to be born our brother / And to save us all! / And to save us all! / Night of peace, night of love / Everything around is sleeping / Among the stars that are scattered in the sky / Indicating the Baby Jesus / Shines the star of peace / Shines the star of peace]
Noite feliz, noite feliz Ó Senhor, Deus de amor Pobrezinho, nasceu em Belém Eis na lapa, Jesus nosso bem Dorme em paz, ó Jesus Dorme em paz, ó Jesus
Noite feliz, noite feliz Ó Jesus, Deus de luz Quão amável é teu coração Que quiseste nascer nosso irmão E a nós todos salvar! E a nós todos salvar!
Noite de paz, noite de amor Tudo dorme em redor Entre os astros que espargem a luz Indicando o Menino Jesus Brilha a estrela da paz Brilha a estrela da paz
Children’s Christmas songs in Portuguese
The most well-known children’s Christmas song in Portugal is ‘A Todos um Bom Natal’ (‘Merry Christmas to Everyone’). It is an earworm of a song, which gets stuck in the head a bit like ‘We Wish you a Merry Christmas’. It was written in 1980 by César Batalha, the musical director of the Santo Amaro de Oeiras Choir, and his wife, Lúcia Carvalho, and every year since then when people hear this song being played from early December they know the Christmas season in Portugal has started.
[[Chorus] A merry Christmas to everyone / A merry Christmas to everyone / Let it be a merry Christmas / For all of us / Let it be a merry Christmas / For all of us / On Christmas morning / We hear the bells ringing / And there is great joy / In the air. / [Chorus] / On this Christmas morning / In every country there are / Many millions of happy / Children / [Chorus] / They leap around the house / Barefoot or in slippers / To look for their presents / So lovely / [Chorus] / Afterwards they dance in a circle / The children join hands / At Christmas everyone feels like / Brothers / [Chorus] / If this were true / For all children / It would be good to hear the bells / Ring / [Chorus]]
[Chorus] A todos um bom Natal A todos um bom Natal Que seja um bom Natal Para todos nós Que seja um bom Natal Para todos nós
No Natal pela manhã Ouvem-se os sinos tocar E há uma grande alegria No ar
Nesta manhã de Natal Há em todos os países Muitos milhões de meninos Felizes [Chorus] Vão aos saltos pela casa Descalços ou em chinelas Procurar as suas prendas Tão belas
[Chorus] Depois há danças de roda As crianças dão as mãos No Natal todos se sentem Irmãos [Chorus]
Se isto fosse verdade Para todos os meninos Era bom ouvir os sinos Cantar
Most other children’s Christmas songs are Portuguese translations or adaptations of well-known English-language Christmas songs, such as ‘A Rena Rodolfo’ (‘Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer’), ‘Pinheirinho de Natal’ (‘O Christmas Tree’), ‘O Pequeno Tambor’ (‘Little Drummer Boy’) and ‘Toca o Sino Pequenino’ (‘Ring the Little Bell’) which is sung to the tune of ‘Jingle Bells’, but rather than singing a translated version of the English lyrics, one version of the song (there are several versions) has been rewritten with a more religious theme where the ‘jingle bells’ on the ‘one-horse open sleigh’ are replaced with a bell being rung in Bethlehem to celebrate the birth of Jesus.
[It’s Christmas, it’s Christmas / Let’s go without delay / To worship the Infant / Who was born today. / It’s Christmas, it’s Christmas / Let’s go without delay / To worship the Infant / Who was born today. / Tonight is beautiful / Amidst it and the sky / We are going to the chapel / Happily to pray. / And in ringing the bell / The little bell / The Holy Infant has come / To save us / Ring the little bell / The bell of Bethlehem / The Holy Infant is born / of the Virgin Mary. / Ring the little bell / The bell of Bethlehem / The Holy Infant is born / of the Virgin Mary. / Tonight is beautiful / Amidst it and the sky / We are going to the chapel / Happily to pray. / And in ringing the bell / The little bell / The Holy Infant has come / To save us / It’s Christmas, it’s Christmas / Let’s go without delay / To worship the Infant / Who was born today. / It’s Christmas, it’s Christmas / Let’s go without delay / To worship the Infant / Who was born today.]
É Natal, é Natal Vamos sem demora Adorar o Menino que nasceu agora.
É Natal, é Natal Vamos sem demora Adorar o Menino que nasceu agora.
Esta noite é bela Entre o céu e ela Vamos à capela Felizes rezar.
E ao tocar o sino Sino pequenino Vem o Deus Menino Para nos salvar.
Toca o sino pequenino Sino de Belém Já nasceu o Deus Menino Que a senhora tem. Toca o sino pequenino Sino de Belém Já nasceu o Deus Menino Que a senhora tem.
Esta noite é bela Entre o céu e ela Vamos à capela Felizes rezar.
E ao tocar o sino Sino pequenino Vem o Deus Menino Para nos salvar.
É Natal, é Natal Vamos sem demora Adorar o Menino que nasceu agora.
É Natal, é Natal Vamos sem demora Adorar o Menino que nasceu agora.
Portuguese Christmas pop songs
There aren’t many Portuguese Christmas pop songs, but a few Portuguese musicians have attempted to make their mark on the Christmas single market. In an article in the online student newspaper ComUM, Bruna Sousa lists 12 Christmas pop songs written and performed by Portuguese artists. I have summarised Bruna’s article in English, but please click on the link to see the full article and to view videos of each song.
‘É Natal’ (‘It’s Christmas’, 1968), sung by the fado singer Fernando Farinha, describes a Portuguese Christmas which combines the secular and the religious. ‘Natal dos Simples’ (‘Christmas of the Humble’, 1968) by José Afonso tells of how the impoverished people of Beira sang songs (Janeiras) to the wealthy in return for food. ‘Um pedido de Natal’ (‘A Christmas Wish’, 1996) by José Malhoa (along with other Portuguese singers such as Tony Carreira, Ágata, Luís Filipe Reis and Romana) is about people who have to be apart from each other at Christmas. In‘Presépio de Lata’ (‘Tin Nativity Scene’, 1998) the singer Rui Veloso offers a cynical view of the Christmas traditions, describing a tin Nativity scene with aluminium stars and cardboard angels and saying that Jesus was brought here out of a false faith. ‘Nesta Noite Branca’ (‘On This White Night’, 1999) by Anjos e Susana. This is one of the first Portuguese Christmas songs that is inspired by the commercial Christmas songs sung in English (it is reminiscent of ‘Last Christmas’ by Wham!) and is about being with a loved one rather than describing traditional Portuguese Christmases. ‘Carta Para o Pai Natal’ (‘Letter to Father Christmas’, 2005) by the rapper Boss AC, is a letter to Father Christmas asking for him to address all the injustices in the world. ‘Queixa ao Pai Natal’(‘Complaint to Father Christmas’, 2009) by Os Azeitonas, refers to how children complain about Father Christmas when he does not give them the present they want, even though they don’t believe in him. ‘Quando Chega o Natal’ (‘When Christmas Comes’, 2011) by the group Deolinda is a cynical comment on the hypocrisy of the Christmas spirit and how everyone is expected to be nice to each other on that one day, despite ignoring them for the rest of the year. ‘O Teu Natal’ (‘Your Christmas’, 2013) by Miguel Ângelo is a love song set around Christmas. In ‘Natal Mais Uma Vez’ (‘Christmas Once More’, 2014) Luísa Sobral sings about the impatience children feel on Christmas Eve for Christmas Day to come and when it is over they want it to be Christmas Day once more. ‘Natal na Minha Cidade’ (‘Christmas in My City’, 2016) by Os Boca do Povo, accompanied by a choir of children, is about the Christmas traditions of Braga, including toasting the season with a glass of muscatel and a banana. ‘Magia do Natal’ (‘Magic of Christmas’, 2018) is a Christmas song performed by a compilation of artists put together by the Klasszik label (including Calema, Anselmo Ralph, Anjos, Nelson Freitas and Bárbara Bandeira). The song tells us to share love with those who are alone.
Despite the variety of these Portuguese Christmas musical offerings, I think Michael Bublé’s ‘king of the Christmas song’ crown is safe and I am certain Portuguese restaurants, supermarkets and Christmas fairs will continue to play his Christmas album throughout December.
Vinho Verde is a very young, crisp wine that is produced in the Minho region. Its name translates to mean ‘young wine’, referring to the fact that it should be drunk soon after it has been bottled (and is not related to its colour, despite ‘verde’ meaning ‘green’). The Vinho Verde region, which lies between the Spanish border and the Douro Valley in the north-western corner of Portugal, was demarcated in 1908 and only permitted grapes are allowed to be used in wines that carry the Vinho Verde DOC (Denominação de Origem Controlada (Controlled Denomination of Origin)) on the label, along with the seal of guarantee and an official number.
While the majority of Vinho Verde drunk outside of Portugal is white, within Portugal it is also possible to buy rosé and red Vinho Verde. The flavour of wines from the Vinho Verde region embody the cold, damp climate and granitic soil in which the vines grow, often draped over pergola trellises or even trees to keep them off the ground to prevent the grapes from rotting. The white Vinho Verdes have a characteristic light-bodied acidity with fruity and floral notes and, at around only 10% alcohol, it is the perfect drink on a hot day. The main grape varieties used in white Vinho Verdes are Alvarinho, Arinto, Avesso, Azal, Loureiro and Trajadura, usually in blends, but some wine producers are creating single-varietal Vinho Verdes with the more-complex Alvarhino and Loureiro grapes. The rosés have a freshness with flavours of strawberries, raspberries and cherries from the Espadeiro and Padeiro grapes, while the reds, made with Amaral, Borraçal and Vinhão grapes, are an acquired taste with high tannins, a deep-red colour and, let’s not beat around the bush, a sharp taste, but are still widely drunk in northern Portugal. Red Vinho Verde is often served from a cask in a traditional small terracotta or ceramic drinking bowl rather than in a wine glass.
Another characteristic of Vinho Verde is its slight fizziness, although not enough fizz to call it a sparkling wine. In the past the fizziness was a result of malolactic fermentation (in which malic acid converts to lactic acid and during this process releases carbon dioxide), but this fermentation resulted in an unappealing cloudiness which meant the wine had to be sold in an opaque container. Nowadays, producers of Vinho Verde add the carbon dioxide artificially. It is the combination of this slight sparkle combined with the light fresh acidity that makes this a perfect wine to drink on its own on a summer’s day or as an accompaniment to white meat, fish, seafood and salads.
Pictured wines (prices as of 2020): Casal Garcia, Quinta da Aveleda, Vinho Verde DOC (blend of Trajadura, Loureiro, Arinto and Azal), NV, €4.55 Leira do Canhoto, Quinta de Melgaço, Vinho Verde DOC (blend of Alvarinho, Loureiro and Arinto), 2014, €3.35