Paula Rego: from the political to the personal

Paula Rego: from the political to the personal

Paula Rego is unarguably the most famous Portuguese artist outside of Portugal, particularly in the United Kingdom where she has mainly lived since 1951. She was born in Lisbon in 1935 and grew up in a wealthy family during the years of the dictatorship. Her father was a liberal and Anglophile who decided to send her to England to attend a finishing school and in 1952 to the Slade School of Art, where she studied under Lucian Freud and L.S. Lowry, among others. It was here she met her future husband, the artist Victor Willing (1928-88), with whom she divided her time between Ericeira in Portugal (a coastal town north-west of Lisbon) and London in the 1950s, ’60s and early ’70s before permanently settling in London.

Her early works were overtly political in theme, criticizing the rightwing dictatorship of António de Oliveira Salazar, and throughout the 1960s she created a number of, often impenetrable, works in which she experimented with collage and mixed media. In the surrealist painting entitled Salazar Vomiting the Homeland (1960) the dictator is depicted as a shape on the left of the picture being sick while in the centre of the painting is another shape of a woman made up of what appears to be pubic hair and holding a shield. The equally abstract triptych, When we had a house in the country we’d throw marvellous parties and then we’d go out and shoot negroes (1961), is a satirical reaction to Portuguese colonialism during the dictatorship and depicts a party scene in a white colonial house while outside white soldiers are killing the indigenous people as much for sport as for war. Using cut-out paper stuck on a blue background Regicide (1965) conveys the chaos that ensued during the assassination of the Portuguese King Carlos I and his eldest son, who were shot as they rode through the Praça do Comércio in Lisbon in a carriage in 1908. The carriage is the most recognisable item in the confusion. The Firemen of Alijo (1966) is an abstract reaction, using collaged fragments from other drawings stuck on a deep red background, to the extreme poverty Rego witnessed in northern Portugal one very cold winter, including seeing a group of firemen standing barefoot in the snow. In the picture she depicts characters comprised of human and animal body parts. Surprisingly, many of these controversial works were shown in an exhibition in Lisbon in 1965.

Paula Rego, Salazar Vomiting the Homeland, 1960, Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Modern Collection, Lisbon
Paula Rego, When we had a house in the country we’d throw marvellous parties and then we’d go out and shoot negroes, 1961, Collection Ostrich Arts
Paula Rego, Regicide, 1965, Private collection
Paula Rego, The Firemen of Alijo, 1966, Tate Britain, London

In 1998 Rego created a socially and politically motivated serious of paintings and drawings around the theme of abortion. These works came after Portugal had held a referendum about whether to legalize abortion or not in which people had not gone out to vote and so abortion remained illegal. Rego, who openly admits to having had abortions herself during her time at the Slade, as well as witnessing the desperate circumstances of poor women in Ericeira in the 1950s and 1960s, who would beg for money to have backstreet abortions, wanted to make people aware of the reality of abortion and made etchings of the paintings and drawings so that they could be shown throughout the country and seen by people who wouldn’t normally see art. In the paintings and drawings Rego deliberately avoided showing blood and gore, but instead focused on the complex emotional impact on the women; in each work there is a solitary woman shown in a room of a house during or just after a backstreet abortion; some of the woman have a look of pain while others look numb and other defiant. A second referendum was held in 2007 and in the lead up to the referendum the etchings appeared in some newspapers. This time the referendum was successful and abortion was finally legalized.

Paula Rego, Untitled No. 1, 1998, Private collection
Paula Rego, Untitled 1-8, 1998, Marlborough Graphics, London
Paula Rego, from Triptych, 1998, Marlborough Fine Art, London

In 2009 Rego took on another taboo theme, that of female genital mutilation, creating nightmarish etchings with aquatint which depict monster-like women performing acts of violence on girls, such as Mother Loves You (2009), where the perpetrator is shown with jaw-like genitals with sharp teeth and Night Bride (2009) where two women hold the girl down while another is about to violate her.

Paula Rego, Mother Loves You, 2009, Marlborough Graphics, London
Paula Rego, Circumcision Night Bride, 2009, Marlborough Graphics, London

Rego created War (2003) after seeing a photograph of a girl in a white dress running away from an exploding bomb in Basra, Iraq. The picture, done in pastel, contains violent images including the central image of a human figure with a rabbit’s head wearing a blue dress carrying a smaller figure wearing a pink dress, whose head is that of a rabbit covered in blood. In the foreground is a stork about to pierce the neck of another rabbit dressed in a pink girl’s dress and there is a miniature woman in a soldier’s uniform holding a stick, while in the background is a dog fighting an ant of the same size. This painting embodies a lot of the themes and imagery that Rego has used throughout her career.

Paula Rego, War, 2003, Tate Britain, London

In contrast to the political works, Rego’s art is often personal, with scenes based on memories from her childhood or aspects of her adult life. It is not surprising to learn that she has been having Jungian psychoanalysis since 1973 and based on the idea that images from childhood are deeply buried in the subconscious she uses stories to access these images and make sense of the world. The surrealist Self-portrait in Red (1962) (shown above) contains autobiographical elements far removed from traditional self-portraits. The background is bright red with a collage of fragmented images painted or glued on, including a figure of a young girl in the centre surrounded by images of grotesque children’s story-like characters. The very personal Depression Series (2007) was created during a bout of severe depression that Rego suffered in 2007 and the works were finally put on public display in 2017. Done largely in black pastel, they are a powerful and frank depiction of the darkness of depression and, as with the abortion and female genital mutilation series, Rego hopes to make the public aware of the issue and remove the stigma of depression.

A dominant, recurring theme in Rego’s work is family relationships. These works depict scenes heavy with symbolism that leave a sense of unease and conflicting emotions. She painted two of her most significant works in the late eighties, The Maids (1987) and The Family (1988). In her later works she uses a more figurative style in which women are often portrayed with manly features and the themes of domination, sexuality, fear and grief recur. The Maids is based on a play, Les Bonnes (The Maids, 1947) by Jean Genet, in which the maids murder their mistress. Rego’s painting sets the scene in a mid-twentieth century Portuguese middle-class bedroom laden with symbolic imagery, where the maids’ actions are ambiguous, but give rise to a sense of menace. In the unsettling painting entitled The Family, painted as Willing was dying, the mannequin-like man is seated on the bed being dressed, undressed or even sexually abused by two of the three females in the room. The characters are distorted and complex emotions, ranging from tenderness to anger, are suggested.

Paula Rego, The Maids, 1987, Marlborough Fine Art, London
Paula Rego, The Family, 1988, Marlborough International Fine Art, London

Rego has described herself as a ‘feminist’ artist and in her art she is not afraid to reveal the female condition through her female central characters. They are often depicted as large women with male features, as in the female painter in Joseph’s Dream (1990), a painting which reverses the traditional role of male painter and reclining female model; the central figure of The Cake Woman (2004); and Dancing Ostriches (1995), in which, influenced by Walt Disney’s animal dance sequence in Fantasia, Rego portrays stocky women in black tutus attempting balletic poses. She often uses the same sitter, Lila Nunes, as her model.

Paula Rego, Joseph’s Dream, 1990, Private collection
Paula Rego, The Cake Woman, 2004, Private collection
Paula Rego, Dancing Ostriches, 1995, Marlborough Fine Art, London

Other female characters, painted as glamorous women in fashionable clothes and with expensive hairstyles, are based on the middle-class women Rego remembers from her childhood and they represent the wicked mother or step-mother who is trying to arrange a suitable marriage for her daughter, as in Snow White and her Stepmother (1995), where the daughter is subjected to the humiliation of the stepmother removing the girl’s knickers, presumably in preparation for marriage. In 1999 she painted a series inspired by Hogarth’s mid-18th century depiction of an arranged marriage, ‘Marriage à la Mode’, but relocated it to a 1940s or ’50s middle-class Portuguese setting. Rego’s work is divided into three parts, The Betrothal, in which two well-dressed women plan the marriage of their respective children; Lessons, showing the mother, sitting under a hairdryer in a beauty salon, giving her daughter (still a child) lessons in marriage; and The Shipwreck, which shows the married couple years later living in obvious poverty with the wife holding the enfeebled husband on her lap.

Paula Rego, Snow White and her Stepmother, 1995, The Whitworth, University of Manchester
Paula Rego, The Betrothal after ‘Marriage à la Mode’ by Hogarth, 1999, Tate Britain, London
aula Rego, The Shipwreck after ‘Marriage à la Mode’ by Hogarth, 1999, Tate Britain, London

In the 1980s she began to use anthropomorphic animals in her paintings, which allowed her to convey parts of her private life. In the ‘Red Monkey’ series she reveals the complications of her marriage through the characters of a monkey (representing Willing), a bear (representing the writer and close friend of Rego, Rudolf Nassauer) and a dog (representing Rego), such as in Red Monkey Offers Bear a Poisoned Dove (1981) and Wife Cuts of Red Monkey’s Tail (1981). Later in the decade she began the ‘Girl and Dog’ series, which was done around the time Willing was ill with multiple sclerosis and in which he is depicted as a dog being cared for or threatened, such as Two Girls and a Dog (1987).

Paula Rego, Red Monkey Offers Bear a Poisoned Dove, 1981, Private collection
Paula Rego, Two Girls and a Dog, 1987, Private collection

In the 1990s she began the ‘Dog Women’ series, in which she depicted women in dog-like poses, although she had been using this dog imagery since her time at the Slade School, for example, Dog Woman (1952). The ‘Dog Woman’ series, done in chalk pastels, represents the relationship of animal and master, where women are depicted in dog-like poses. In Bride (1994), the frame is dominated by a reclining woman dressed in a beautiful white silk wedding dress who is looking directly at the viewer as if to ask them to rub her tummy, while in Lush (1994) and Sleeper (1994) a sleeping female figure dominates the frame. There is an intimacy to the portrayal of the woman in Lush, who is dressed in a petticoat and is sleeping with her legs apart, while in Sleeper there is an ambiguity to whether the way the woman is sleeping (lying on a man’s jacket) is a sign of loyalty to her master or a punishment. Sit (1994) is a more unsettling picture, as the pregnant woman is shown seated in an armchair with her arms behind her, her feet crossed uncomfortably and her head turned at an awkward angle.

Paula Rego, Dog Woman, 1952, Collection Paula Rego
Paula Rego, Bride, 1994, Tate Britain, London
Paula Rego, Lush, 1994, Private collection
Paula Rego, Sleeper, 1994, Private collection

Many of Rego’s works are reinterpretations of myths, works of literature and children’s stories. In 1989 (during which time (1989-1990) she was Associate Artist at the National Gallery in London) Rego created a series of etchings with aquatint in which she subverted the seemingly innocent subject matter of nursery rhymes and created something much darker, such as in Polly Put the Kettle On (1989), where two women, who fill the space of the etching, serve tea to a group of doll-like soldiers.

Paula Rego, Polly put the Kettle on, 1989, Marlborough Graphics, London

In 1997 she created a series of paintings inspired by the famous Portuguese novel by Eça de Queiros, O Crime do Padre Amaro (The Crime of Father Amaro, 1875) which tells the story of a priest who falls in love with the daughter of his landlady. Ideas inspired by the novel, rather than depictions of scenes, include The Cell (1997), in which Father Amaro lies on a campbed under which is a figure of the Virgin Mary and over which he appears to be masturbating; The Company of Women (1997), which conveys a memory Father Amaro has of being cosseted as a boy by the housemaids, but here he is shown as a man and the adoration of the women takes on a sexual tone as Amaro looks knowingly out at the viewer; and one of Rego’s most famous paintings, Angel (1998), in which Rego creates an avenging angel holding a sponge in one hand and a sword in the other to exact retribution for the death of one of the characters.

Paula Rego, The Cell, 1997, Collection Fundação de Serralves – Museu de Arte Contemporânea, Porto
Paula Rego, The Company of Women, 1997, Collection Ostrich Arts Limited
Paula Rego, Angel, 1998, Collection Ostrich Arts Limited

In 2001-2 she created a series of unorthodox lithographs, with sexual subtext, based on another classic 19th-century novel, Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre (1847), six of which were turned into British postage stamps in 2005.

Rego’s work often disturbs or shocks whether as political and social comment or through her inward-looking and autobiographical content, but throughout there is always a sense of defiance. Highly respected in Portugal and the United Kingdom, she received the Grã-Cruz da Ordem Militar de Sant’Iago (Grand Cross of the Military Order of Saint James of the Sword) from the President of Portugal in 2004 and was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the Queen’s Birthday Honours List in 2010 for her services to art. Many of her paintings, etchings and drawings, along with paintings by Victor Willing, are now permanently housed in the Casa das Histórias Paula Rego in Cascais, which opened in 2009. The collection is housed in a distinctive red building with twin pyramid-shaped towers designed by Eduardo Souto de Moura.

Casa das Histórias Paula Rego, Avenida da República, Cascais.
Open Tuesday to Sunday 10am-6pm. Entrance: €5.

Casa das Histórias Paula Rego, Cascais
Heroes of the sea: Monument to the Discoveries, Belém, Lisbon

Heroes of the sea: Monument to the Discoveries, Belém

Monument to the Discoveries, Belém

The age of the Portuguese explorations is a brief but glorious period when Portugal dominated the sea routes and trading points in the Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean and South China Seas and which saw the discovery of parts of Africa, India, Asia, Brazil and even Canada, before the ‘glorious’ era gave way to the blot on Portugal’s past: the trading of slaves and a long period of colonial rule. Infante Dom Henrique (Prince Henrique the Navigator (1394-1460)), the third son of King João I and Queen Philippa of Lancaster, was the man behind Portuguese exploration in the first half of the 15th century. He sponsored the expeditions, financed by his brother King Duarte (who reigned from 1433 to 1438) and later his nephew, King Afonso V (who reigned from 1438 to 1481), that led to the discovery of Madeira in 1418, the Azores in 1427, Cape Verde in 1444 and Guinea (present-day Guinea-Bissau) in 1460. Despite being known as ‘the Navigator’, ironically he never embarked on any of the expeditions himself, although it is believed by some historians that he started a school of navigation in Sagres at the south-western point of the Algarve (where he lived up to his death), in which he had the best nautical and scientific minds of the age. There is no evidence to prove that the school did exist, but whether it did or not, scientific and technological advances during his lifetime aided the success of the voyages, the most important of which was the design of the caravel; a small, easy to steer ship, based on the design of fishing boats, with triangular lateen sails which allowed it to sail against prevailing winds. It was in a caravel that Gil Eanes was able to sail around Cape Bojador in 1434, which had been impassable to European sailors up to then, thus marking the beginning of the exploration of the west coast of Africa. After Prince Henrique’s death the explorations continued under King João II (who reigned from 1481 to 1495) and King Manuel I (who reigned from 1495 to 1521), with the discovery of Elmina (present-day Ghana) in 1471 and São Tomé and Príncipe (off the west coast of Africa) in 1475, Congo and Angola in 1483, the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, Natal (South Africa) in 1497, Calicut (present-day Kozhikode, in western India), Goa (on the south-western coast of India), Mozambique (East Africa) in 1498, Madagascar (off the coast of East Africa), Terra Nova (present-day Newfoundland in Canada) and Porto Seguro (in Brazil) in 1500, Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka) in 1505, Ormuz (present-day Hormuz Island, an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf) in 1507, Daman (in western India) and Malacca (in Malaysia) in 1509, Pegu (present-day Bago in Myanmar) in 1511, the Maluku Islands (also known as the ‘Spice Islands’, in present-day Indonesia) and Timor (present-day East and West Timor, in south-east Asia) in 1512, the River Plate (in South America) and the Canton River (the present -day Pearl River in China) in 1514 and the River Ganges (India and Bangladesh) in 1516.

The Padrão dos Descobrimentos (Monument to the Discoveries) is one of the most famous landmarks in Belém, a district to the west of Lisbon, located on the bank of the River Tejo. It was built in 1960, during the Salazar dictatorship, to celebrate the 500th anniversary of Prince Henrique the Navigator and, typical of other fascist architecture, it is an imposing structure designed to stir up feelings of patriotism and what better subject matter than the golden age of the Portuguese Discoveries?

The 56-metre-high monument, designed by the architect José Cottinelli Telmo and the sculptor Leopoldo de Almeida, is built in the shape of a caravel. At the stern, above the entrance, is an enormous sword representing the House of Avis, with the Portuguese coat of arms either side of the upper part of the sword. At the prow stands Henrique the Navigator, holding a small caravel in his hand and looking out across the water. Lining both sides of the monument are people associated with the Discoveries. On the western-facing side, kneeling behind Prince Henrique is Prince Fernando (1402-1443, one of Henrique’s younger brothers, also known as Fernando o Infante Santo (Fernando the Holy Prince), due to the fact that he was captured during the Siege of Tangier in 1437 and his captors demanded the strategic port of Ceuta in exchange for his freedom. The Portuguese refused to surrender Ceuta and Prince Fernando died in captivity.) Behind him are the Portuguese navigators, João Gonçalves Zarco (c.1390-1471, who discovered Madeira in 1418), Gil Eanes (active c.1433-1445, who successfully sailed beyond the dangerous Cape Bojador on the West African coast in 1434) and Pêro de Alenquer (c.1480-c.1514, who was on the ship captained by Bartolomeu Dias that sailed around the Cape of Good Hope for the first time in 1488 and was a pilot on Vasco da Gama’s first voyage to India in 1497-98). Behind them, holding an armillary sphere, is Pedro Nunes (1502-1578, a mathematician who revolutionized navigation and cartography by applying the principles of mathematics), followed by Pêro de Escobar (active c.1470-c.1500, a Portuguese navigator who discovered São Tomé and Príncipe in c.1475 and later was on Vasco da Gama’s first voyage to India in 1497-98 and Pedro Álvares Cabral’s voyage where he discovered Brazil in 1500), Jácome de Maiorca (1360-1410, a renowned cartographer from Majorca (whose real name was Jehudà Cresques), who it is said, Prince Henrique procured to train the Portuguese map-makers), Pêro da Covilhã (active 1487-1525, an explorer who travelled to India overland in 1487, sent by King Joāo II to investigate setting up the trading of spices, and headed back to Portugal via Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia), where he was made a governor of a district) and Gomes Eanes de Zurara (c.1410-c.1474, a writer and chronicler who wrote Crónica do Descobrimento e Conquista da Guiné (Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea) in 1453), describing the early Portuguese voyages.

Monument to the Discoveries, Belem (detail of the western-facing side showing, from left to right, Nuno Gonçalves, Gomes Eanes de Zurara, Pêro da Covilhã, Jácome de Maiorca, Pêro de Escobar, Pedro Nunes, Pêro de Alenquer, Gil Eanes, João Gonçalves Zarco, Prince Fernando and Prince Henrique)

Behind them, shown holding a paintbrush and palette, is Nuno Gonçalves (active c.1450-c.1491, who was the court painter to King Afonso V. His most famous painting is Painéis de São Vicente (Saint Vincent Panels c.1470), in which he puts a religious subject in a contemporary setting making it an important record of Portuguese society in the mid-fifteenth century. It was originally part of an altar in Lisbon Cathedral and is now one of the prized exhibits in the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga in Lisbon. There are six panels, the larger two central ones both show Saint Vicent, the patron saint of Lisbon, in the foreground dressed in red and gold robes and surrounded by the nobility and other important members of Portuguese society, including the royal family and the Archbishop of Lisbon. In the other four panels other sectors of Portuguese society are represented, including knights, monks, a fisherman, a Jewish scholar, a beggar and a city official. However, it is debated who the actual members of the royal family are and in particular the figure in black to the right of the Saint in the third panel, who is generally thought to be Prince Henrique, as it was painted during Portugal’s golden Age of Discovery, but there is a convincing argument that it is his brother King Duarte and that Henrique is in fact the kneeling figure in the fifth panel and that depicting him kneeling was a political attempt to humiliate him).

Nuno Gonçalves, Painéis de São Vicente, c.1470, Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon

Then comes Luís Vaz de Camões (c.1524-80, who is known as the Portuguese Shakespeare He was a colourful character if everything that has been written about him is to be believed (which it isn’t!). The facts of his life are sketchy, which has resulted in various myths developing about him. He was a member of the lower ranks of the aristocracy and after being exiled from Lisbon joined the army and fought in Morocco, where it is said he lost an eye. A few years later he was sent to India as a soldier to avoid a jail sentence and during this time was shipwrecked, where legend has it that he swam ashore holding the manuscript of his most famous poem, Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads), above the water to save it. Os Lusíadas (published in 1572) is an epic poem which has many layers to it, written with reference to classical epic poems such as The Aeneid and The Odyssey. Its central subject is Vasco da Gama’s voyage to and discovery of India in 1497-98. By the time Camões was in India, Portugal’s domination was in decline and it could be argued that Os Lusíadas was partly written to restore national pride. He is depicted holding sheets of verse from Os Lusíadas Canto 7, verse 14:
Mas, entanto que cegos e sedentos
Andais de vosso sangue, ó gente insana,
Não faltarão Cristãos atrevimentos
Nesta pequena casa Lusitane:
De África tem marítimos assentos;
É na Ásia mais que todas soberana;
Na quarta parte nova os campos ara;
E, se mais mundo houvera, lá chegara.

(But, while you blindly thirst
For the blood of your own, oh insane people,
There will be no lack of Christian daring
In this little Lusitanian house:
In Africa Portugal has coastal bases;
And in Asia great sovereignty;
In the fourth part, the New World, the land is being cultivated;
And, if there are more lands to be found, they will go there.)).

Towards the rear of the western-facing side are Henrique de Coimbra (c.1465-1532, a Franciscan friar and bishop who was on one of the ships on Pedro Álvares Cabral’s voyage where he discovered Brazil in 1500, and who later became a missionary in Africa and India), Gonçalo de Carvalho (a 15th-century Dominican friar who spread Catholicism in India and later Congo), Fernão Mendes Pinto (c.1509-1583, an explorer and writer whose most famous work is the Peregrinaçāo (Pilgrimage, 1614), which, with dubious historical accuracy, describes his voyages to India, the Middle East and the Far East), Queen Philippa of Lancaster (1360-1415, Prince Henrique’s mother, who was the daughter of John of Gaunt, cousin of King Richard II of England and sister of Henry IV of England and her marriage to King João I was important in that it sealed the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance against the Franco-Castilian axis and prevented a potential challenge to João’s reign) and Prince Pedro (1392-1449, another of Prince Henrique’s brothers who was Prince Regent to the six-year-old King Afonso V until he came of age).

Monument to the Discoveries, Belem (detail of the western-facing side showing, from left to right, Prince Pedro, Queen Philippa of Lancaster, Fernão Mendes Pinto, Gonçalo de Carvalho, Henrique de Coimbra and Luís Vaz de Camões)
Monument to the Discoveries, Belem (eastern-facing side)

On the eastern-facing side, directly behind Prince Henrique, is King Afonso V (1432-81, Prince Henrique’s nephew and patron of the explorations led by his uncle), followed by Vasco da Gama (c.1460-1524, one of the most famous navigators, who in 1497 led an expedition from Lisbon, around the Cape of Good Hope, onto South Africa and East Africa, discovering Natal and Mozambique and finally arriving in Calicut, India in 1498, thus opening up an important trade route between Portugal and India). Behind him are the navigators Afonso Baldaia (c.1415-1481, an early navigator who, along with Gil Eanes, explored the coast of the Western Sahara south of Cape Bojador in 1435-36), Pedro Álvares Cabral (c.1467-c.1520, who discovered Brazil in 1500, landing in Porto Seguro in the northeast of the country), Fernão de Magalhães (c.1480-1521, also known as Ferdinand Magellan, who in 1520-21 (sailing for the King of Spain), crossed from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean through the Strait of Magellan (named after him) and onto the East Indies (where he died), which marked the first circumnavigation of the globe), Nicolau Coelho (c.1460-1504, who captained one of the ships on Vasco da Gama’s first voyage to India in 1497-98 and on Pedro Álvares Cabral’s voyage where he discovered Brazil in 1500), Gaspar Côrte-Real (1450-1501, who led the voyage in 1500 to find a Northwest Passage to Asia, which resulted in the discovery of Newfoundland) and Martim Afonso de Sousa (c.1500-1564, who commanded an official expedition to Brazil in 1530 and founded the settlements of Sāo Vicente and Sāo Paulo in 1532, becoming the first Royal Governor of Brazil).

Behind them, holding a sheet of paper is João de Barros (1496-1570, a writer and historian who wrote three volumes of a work entitled Décadas da Ásia (Decades of Asia) between 1552 and 1563, which describe the experiences of the Portuguese in India and Asia). He is followed by Estêvão da Gama (c.1505-1576, a fleet commander, and son of Vasco da Gama, who, like his father before him, became Viceroy of India in 1540), and behind him, raising a padrão (a pillar the explorers would to leave on land they had discovered to mark Portuguese possession) between them, are Bartolomeu Dias (c.1450-1500, who was the first European to sail around the Cape of Good Hope (the southernmost point of Africa) in 1488 and opened up a sea route into the Indian Ocean), Diogo Cão (c.1452-c.1486, who discovered the Congo River in 1482, the north-west coast of Angola in 1484 and Namibia in 1485) and António de Abreu (c.1480-c.1514, who was part of the fleet led by Afonso de Albuquerque that conquered the island of Ormuz in 1507 and Malacca in 1511 and discovered Timor in 1512). The bearded figure behind António de Abreu is Afonso de Albuquerque (c.1453-1515, who is considered to be one of the greatest Portuguese naval commanders, by militarily and administratively contributing to the building of the Portuguese Empire, including closing the naval passages from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic to other countries and developing a sea trade with China). At the rear of the eastern-facing side are Francisco Xavier (1506-1552, a Jesuit who worked as a missionary in Asia and India) and Cristóvão da Gama (c.1516-1542, a fleet commander, son of Vasco da Gama and brother of Estêvão da Gama, who sailed to India in 1532 and later was involved in several battles against the Muslims in Ethiopia in 1541 and 42, where he died in captivity).

On the ground in front of the monument is a 50-metre replica of a wind rose; a map used by the navigators in the 15th and 16th centuries showing the directions of the eight principal winds at various locations. The map, which was a gift from South Africa and designed by the architect Luís Cristino da Silva in black and red limestone, depicts the routes and dates of the discoveries, marked by icons of ships, and decorated with images of Neptune, a mermaid and a sea creature.

It is best seen from the top of the monument, which can be reached by a lift or by the 267 steps, and from where you can enjoy views of the Jerónimos Monastery, Maritime Museum, Archaeological Museum, Belém Tower, Belém Cultural Centre, the River Tejo, 25th April Bridge and the Cristo Rei monument on the other side of the river.

Either side of the monument are two large armillary spheres. The armillary sphere was an important navigational instrument during the Age of Discovery (used to calculate distance) and it became the symbol of Portugal, appearing on the Portuguese flag. King Manuel I, during his reign, adopted it as his personal symbol and it features in a lot of Manueline architecture.

Monument to the Discoveries and armillary sphere, Belém

The best time to see the monument is towards sunset, when the sun is softer and gives it a golden glow.

Monument to the Discoveries, Belém

Practicalities

Monument to the Discoveries, Avenida do Brasília, Belém

Open: March to September 10am-7pm daily; October to February 10am-6pm (closed Mondays); also closed 1 January, 1 May and 25 December

Entrance : €5 (as of 2019)

Public transport from Lisbon: tram 15; buses 728, 714, 727, 729 and 751; trains from Cais do Sodré stop at Belém station

Coimbra, Hotel Astória, Coimbra: the faded beauty of a bygone era

Hotel Astória, Coimbra: the faded beauty of a bygone era

I had first heard of the Hotel Astória long before visiting Coimbra through a language course I was studying which was set in Coimbra. The words ‘Hotel Astória’ were among the first Portuguese words I learnt and as such had stuck in my head. So, when we decided to spend a few days in Coimbra the Hotel Astória was the natural choice. On further research I discovered that it is one the best Art Nouveau buildings in Coimbra and the decision was made.
We approached the wedge-shaped five-storey building, with a rotunda at the narrow end, from the railway station, a short walk along the riverfront road (Avenida Emídio Navarro) where it is situated. The building was designed by the architect Adães Bermudes, who included ornate balconies and Art Nouveau decorative features on the exterior walls, but the highlight is the ornate dome on the rotunda which wouldn’t look out of place on a church. The ground floor has large arched Modernist windows and a glass canopy over the entrance. Everything looked like it must have done when the hotel first opened in 1926.


After walking in through an iron and glass revolving door I felt that I had stepped back in time. We entered a beautiful lobby, designed by Francisco de Oliveira Ferreira, in grey and pink marble with wood panelling and Art Nouveau decor in wrought iron. There is a private phone booth next to the reception desk and above the small seating area is a balcony with further seating, some books to read and even writing desks.

There were also lots of black and white photos from the first half of the twentieth century on display showing this hotel and other luxurious hotels. I was particularly interested in one showing the railway running in front of the Astória.

The lounge with its beautiful parquet floor, pink marbled, wood-panelled and mirrored walls, chandeliers and plush furnishings conjures up images of a bygone age when people would write postcards or even letters on the writing desks located in the room. There is also a small balcony above the lounge with a stunning Art Deco design in wrought iron and stained glass and I wondered who would have stood up there looking down on the people below – a Jay Gatsbyesque character, perhaps. I felt decidedly underdressed.

The dining room, where the breakfast buffet is served, is a light airy space built in the rotunda so there are large windows on three sides plus wood panelling on the walls, with carved leaf patterns overlaid, and two large pillars in the middle of the room. There is another small balcony above it.

The pièce de résistance has to be the original cage lift, which has been slightly modernized, but retains the original features, including a glass and wood interior with a leather seat inside, and is still fully functional.

It’s true that our room had none of the charm of the communal areas, it was very basic with ugly wood panelling, uncomfortable functional furniture, slightly worn carpets, a CRT TV and an old-fashioned bathroom (admittedly some of these may have been original features, but they had none of the historical interest of the items downstairs),

but the views from the rooms at the front of the hotel of the River Mondego, the Santa Clara Bridge and the Santa Clara-a-Nova Convent on the opposite side of the river and from the rooms at the back, of the hilltop university, make up for that.

The Astória’s glory days may be over (it is now only a three-star hotel owned by the Alexandre de Almeida hotel group, where the average price for a standard room with breakfast is €75 per night) and it may have lost its prestigious status to the five-star Quinta das Lágrimas hotel on the other side of the river, but it remains a living monument to the Art Nouveau style of the 1920s and gives a taste of how it might have been in the days when the rich and powerful passed through its doors.

Food and drink, Polvo à lagareiro (Octopus in olive oil)

Polvo à lagareiro (Octopus in olive oil)

I discovered how delicious octopus can be in a small restaurant in Porto. Initially I was slightly scared of the strange-looking tentacles (or arms as they should correctly be referred to) with suckers which, as a Northern European, I had never seen on a plate before, and I expected them to be rubbery. However, I had ordered polvo à lagareiro (which literally means ‘octopus à la olive presser’) in which the tentacles are boiled and then roasted in garlic and olive oil (hence the name ‘à lagareiro’) to make them very tender. They are served with batatas a murro, small potatoes baked in their skins which, at the end of the cooking time, are pressed down on to break the skin (‘murro’ literally means ‘punch’) and added to the oil that the octopus is cooking in to soak up the flavours. I have always associated this dish with summer holidays, but in the Trás-os-Montes region in the north-east of Portugal it is eaten on Christmas Eve. As with many Portuguese dishes the secret is in the freshness and quality of the ingredients and the simplicity of this recipe is testament to that fact.

Alentejo, Twenty-four hours in Évora: the noble city with a rich history

Twenty-four hours in Évora: the noble city with a rich history

Praça do Giraldo, Évora

University of Évora: Holy Spirit College

We ran all the way from the bus station to the Colégio do Espírito Santo (Holy Spirit College), the wheels of our suitcases bouncing behind us on the cobbled streets. We had missed the bus we had intended to get from Lisbon and the next one had arrived at twenty to five. Our guidebook informed us that the famous university building closed at 6pm on Saturdays, so time was of the essence. We needn’t have rushed as the guidebook was wrong; the college closes at 8pm on Saturdays and after leaving our luggage with the porter we were able to have a leisurely look around the university building that was originally built as a Jesuit seminary in 1551 by Cardinal Henrique (who later became Cardinal-King Henrique). The Jesuit symbol IHS with a cross and three nails can still be seen on the building. The college became part of the University of Évora in 1559, the second university to be established in Portugal (the first being the University of Coimbra in 1537), however, it was closed in 1759 by the Jesuit-hating Marquês de Pombal, when he expelled the Jesuits from Portugal and for the next two centuries, although it was used for various educational purposes, it was no longer part of the university and it wasn’t until 1973 that it was reintegrated with the university. The college is built around a cloister, the Pátio dos Gerais (Generals’ Courtyard), which is bordered by Italian Renaissance-style marble columns, has a pretty fountain in the centre and is dominated on one side by an 18th-century marble portico. On the ground floor is the Sala de Atos (Great Hall), a former 17th-century Baroque chapel, which is now used for graduation ceremonies. It is an impressive room decorated with azulejo panels, stucco and at the far end are portraits of King Sebastião and Cardinal-King Henrique. Also on the ground floor are the older classrooms, each of which still has a pulpit. Each classroom also has azulejo panels on the walls which depict various themes including the Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle, and scenes linked to the subjects that were taught. There is another former cloister with marble columns which is now the refectory. Upstairs, are azulejo-lined corridors, more classrooms, the library, with its early-18th-century ceiling decorated with an image of the Virgin Mary and lots cherubs, and the octagonal central intersection known as ‘The Centre of the World’, decorated in Baroque style with azulejo panels, sculptures, paintings and at the central point, a dome depicting the four elements of earth, air, water and fire. I was so happy we had made the effort to see this beautiful building, which we more or less had to ourselves at this late hour.

Roman temple

After dropping our bags off at the lovely Vitória Stone hotel,

Vitória Stone Hotel, Évora

a modern hotel on the southern outskirts of the town, and enjoying a wonderful meal in the hotel restaurant, comprising typical Alentejo dishes cooked with local ingredients, we walked to the famous Roman temple in the Largo do Conde de Vila Flor at the top of the town, which is part of the Historic Centre of Évora UNESCO World Heritage Site. The temple which was built between the 1st and 3rd Centuries AD is said to be one of the best preserved Roman buildings in south-west Europe. What remains of the former temple is a granite platform with 14 granite columns, whose capitals and bases are made of white marble from nearby Estremoz. Excavations have revealed that the temple would have been surrounded by water on three sides and a staircase would have led to the entrance (the remains of a staircase is still visible) and a small model of the temple as it might have looked can be seen in the Museum of Évora. The temple is erroneously known as the Temple of Diana due to a myth started in the 17th century that it was dedicated to the goddess Diana (the goddess of hunting), a myth that has been disputed by archaeologists. What isn’t under dispute is that the temple has had a chequered history: it was walled up and incorporated into Évora Castle in the Middle Ages (this largely accounts for why it survived so well); used as an execution ground during the Inquisition; and at various points in history used as an armoury, a theatre and a slaughterhouse. The temple is floodlit at night and the area takes on a mystical atmosphere.

Pousada Convento de Évora, Church of St John the Evangelist and Cadaval Palace

Also in the Largo do Conde de Vila Flor is the Pousada Convento de Évora (also known as Pousada dos Lóios) (pousadas are luxury hotels owned by the Pestana Group which are generally located in historic buildings) in the former convent of Os Lóios, which was begun in 1487 by Rodrigo de Melo (the First Count of Olivença), who was Head of the Royal Guard for King Afonso V and from whom the Duke of Cadaval line can be traced. In the current pousada the restaurant is in the former cloisters and the rooms are the former convent cells. Next door to the pousada is the Igreja de São João Evangelista (Church of Saint John the Evangelist), which was also commissioned by Rodrigo de Melo as a private church and family tomb. The church is still owned by the House of Cadaval and contains tombs of generations of Dukes of Cadaval, including one of Francisco de Melo sculpted by Nicolau Chanterene in the 16th century. The church is part of the Palácio Cadaval (Cadaval Palace), which is the family home of the current Duchess of Cadaval, although part of it is open to the public and they also hold temporary exhibitions on the first floor of the church. On the Saturday night when we were there we intrigued by the African music coming from the courtyard garden outside the palace restaurant, Cinco Quinas (named after the five shields on the Portuguese coat of arms). We entered through the big barred gate, bought two glasses of wine from the restaurant and sat at one of the tables in the courtyard to listen to the lively music in the relaxed surroundings. Soon many other people had joined us and were up dancing. It was a lovely way to end the evening.

City walls and Évora Public Park

We began the next day wandering around the old town, entering through the imposing city walls, which were originally built by the Romans and added to during the Middle Ages. These were superseded by new walls built in the 14th century which were fortified in the 17th century (in preparation for an attack by the Spanish). The previous day we had entered through one of the most famous gates, the Porta de Alconchel (to the west of the city, near the bus station)

Porta de Alconchel, Évora

and on this day we walked along the outside of the 16th-century wall with watchtowers that surround the Jardim Público de Évora (Évora Public Park). We began by walking through the park, which as well as a charming 19th-century bandstand and duck pond, also has a former palace, the Palácio de Dom Manuel (King Manuel Palace), where the royal family would come and stay throughout the 15th and 16th centuries. It originates from the late-15th century and was part of the Convent of São Francisco, however, a lot of the building was destroyed and rebuilt in the 19th century. The main part of the former palace still standing today is the early-16th-century Galeria das Damas (Ladies’ Gallery) which comprises a mixture of architectural styles, including Manueline, Gothic and Renaissance (and is most notable for its distinctive arches with what looks like a pattern of spearheads around them), built during the reign of King Manuel. It was the home of the royal court until 1580, when Cardinal-King Henrique died and King Philip II of Spain seized the throne and had no interest in coming to Évora. (The palace is now owned by the local council and used for official ceremonies and cultural events.) In the park there are also remains of a Medieval wall and a 19th-century folly known as the Ruínas Fingidas (Fake Ruins), which comprise the remains of buildings from around the city. There is a statue of José Cinnatti, the Italian designer who created the park in the late-19th century and, as it is believed that the great Portuguese explorer, Vasco da Gama, received his commission to lead an expedition to find a sea route to India at the palace, there is a statue commemorating him in the grounds of the park which was given by the South African people to commemorate his discovery of Natal in 1497.

Praça do Giraldo

At several points during our time walking around the city we found ourselves passing through the main square, Praça do Giraldo, thought to be named after Giraldo Sem Pavor (Gerald the Fearless), a Christian knight who fought in King Afonso Henriques army during the time of the reconquest of Portugal from the Moors. He is said to have climbed up the town walls on a ladder of swords and distracted (or killed) the sentries in the watchtower allowing the Christian soldiers to capture the town. The square is large with a 16th-century fountain (marking the spot where water was first brought to Évora by the aqueduct) dominating the centre; the Igreja de Santo Antão (Saint Anthony’s Church) is at one end and the Bank of Portugal is at the other end and there is a colonnaded shopping arcade on one side. It is a popular place to sit at one of the pavement cafés and watch the world go by and it is hard to believe that in the past it was the site of executions and burnings during the Inquisition.

Praça do Giraldo, Évora

Largo da Porta de Moura

Drawn like a magnet back to the historic centre, we zigzagged our way through the narrow streets of the city, passing through the Largo da Porta de Moura (Moorish Gate Square), in the centre of which is a uncharacteristically 16th-century marble fountain made up of two large rectangles with a large globe with water jets on the top. The square was the original entrance to the town and in the 15th century was a prestigious part of Évora in which to live and the former manor houses that surround it are still standing, including the Casa Cordovil with its mixture of Manueline and Moorish architectural styles.

Garden of Diana and aqueduct

We returned to the Roman temple to see it in daylight and to the pretty garden next to it named Jardim Diana (Garden of Diana) with lovely views of the famous aqueduct and the Alentejo countryside. The Aqueduto da Água de Prata (Silver Water Aqueduct) was completed in 1537 by the architect Francisco de Arruda (who also designed the Belém Tower in Lisbon) to bring water from the Ribeira do Divor (to the north of Évora) into the town (initially to the aforementioned fountain in the Praça do Giraldo). The original aqueduct was 18 kilometres in length, but it suffered damage in the 17th century during the Restoration War and now it only extends for 9 kilometres, but it is possible to walk along the top of most of it starting at Rua do Cano in Évora where houses and shops are built into the arches. The aqueduct has the honour to be mentioned in Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads) by Luís Vaz de Camões (1572) in Canto III, verse 63:

Eis a nobre Cidade, certo assento
Do rebelde Sertório antigamente,
Onde ora as águas nítidas de argento
Vem sustentar de longo a terra e a gente,
Pelos arcos reais, que cento e cento
Nos ares se alevantam nobremente,
Obedeceu por meio e ousadia
De Giraldo, que medos não temia.

(Behold the noble City, the former seat
Of the rebel Sertorius,
Where now the clear silvery waters
Come from afar to sustain the earth and the people,
Through regal arches, that in their hundreds
Rise nobly in the air,
It yielded through the audacity
Of Giraldo, who had no fear of fear.)

The small Jardim Diana is dominated by a statue in homage to Francisco Barahona, a local philanthropist, by Simões de Almeida and Alfredo Costa Campos (1908), and there are also some modern sculptures dotted around the garden dating from 1981 (when the International Symposium of Stone was held in Évora).

Museum of Évora

From here it was a short stroll to the Museum of Évora, housed in a 16th-century former Bishop’s Palace. I wasn’t expecting much, having visited various Portuguese town museums which often have a random collection of broken pots and local artefacts, but I was very impressed by the large collection of art and sculpture along with Portuguese furniture and decorative arts and Roman, Moorish and medieval remains. Highlights included sculptures by Teixeira Lopes, Simões de Almeida, Bernardim Ribeiro, Alberto Nunes, Costa Mota and Aristides Fontana and paintings by Flemish and Dutch masters, the highlight of which was a late-15th-/early-16th-century polyptych depicting ‘The Life of the Virgin’, and Portuguese artists including Josefa de Óbidos, Gregório Lopes, Frei Carlos and the Mestre do Sardoal (Master of Sardoal).

Évora Cathedral

Next door to the museum is the imposing granite Gothic-style Sé Catedral de Évora (Évora Cathedral), which is also part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site. The original cathedral dates from 1186, when Évora was reconquered from the Moors, but it was rebuilt in the 13th and 14th centuries and added to over the subsequent centuries, resulting in the building standing today with its crenellated walls, main portal with statues of the Apostles (thought to be sculpted by the sculptor Pêro in the 14th century), asymmetric towers, including one with blue tiles, and a pretty lantern tower decorated with six turrets which are miniature versions of the tower. Inside the cathedral there is a mixture of styles ranging from the main altar of white, pink and black marble built in the first half of the 18th-century from a design by João Frederico Ludovice (who also designed the Mafra National Palace), a Baroque side altar with a 15th century marble statue of a pregnant Virgin Mary (Nossa Senhora do Ó (Our Lady of the Oh)) facing a wooden statue of the Angel Gabriel (dating from the 16th century), the Mannerist altar in the Capela do Esporão with the eye-catching painting, Descida da Cruz (Descent from the Cross) by Pedro Nunes (1620), and a Renaissance organ. The cloisters contain marble statues of the four evangelists and tombs of former recent archbishops of Évora and there is a separate chapel which contains the tomb of Bishop Dom Pedro, who commissioned the building of the cloister in the 14th century, watched over by statues of the Angel Gabriel and the Virgin Mary. A number of small stone spiral staircases lead to a terrace from which there are great views of the exterior of the cathedral, the Roman temple and the Alentejo landscape in the distance. The cathedral complex also has a Museum of Sacred Art, which is definitely worth a visit to see the two main treasures, if nothing else: the 17th-century Cruz Relicário do Santo Lenho de Évora (Reliquary Cross of Holy Wood of Évora), which is a silver box with a cross on the top decorated with 1426 gems including diamonds, emeralds, sapphires and rubies and said to contain fragments of the cross that Christ was crucified on; and the 14th-century French ivory triptych known as the Virgem do Paraíso (Virgin of Paradise, named after the Convent of Paradise where it was housed), which is a 40cm-high statue of the Virgin Mary which opens up to reveal nine scenes from her life. The head of the statue is an incongruous wooden replacement for the original one, added in the 16th century. Another amusing statue which caught my eye, was one of St Anthony dressed as a choirboy. The building that houses the museum was formerly the Colégio dos Moços da Sé (Cathedral Choir School) and it is believed that the image of St Anthony dressed as a choirboy (from Lisbon Cathedral) became the patron saint of the Évora Cathedral choirboys.

St Francis’ Church and the Chapel of Bones

While we were in the ecclesiastical mood, there was one church that we had to visit, the Igreja de São Francisco (St Francis’ Church), which is best known for its Capela dos Ossos (Chapel of Bones). The church, which dates from the 15th and 16th centuries, replaced a former church which was built in 1226 for the Order of Saint Francis. It is a mixture of Gothic and Manueline styles and I was drawn to the Gothic arches at the front of the church which are not uniform in size or shape and the white cone-shaped spires with spirals, which look like Mr Whippy ice cream! Inside the church we were greeted by a vaulted nave of bare bricks, but there are elements of Renaissance and Baroque styles throughout the church, including the 18th-century Sala de Ordem Terceira de São Francisco (Secular Franciscan Order Room) which combines Neo-classical, Rococco, Baroque and Joanine styles. We also visited the small church museum, the highlight of which was a beautiful 18th-century organ built by Pascoal Caetano Oldovino (a Genoese organ builder who set up a workshop in Évora) and the exhibition of nativity scenes on the first floor of the church, from where there are lovely views of the town including the King Manuel Palace opposite the church. However, the main draw is the Chapel of Bones and as we approached the entrance to the chapel we were greeted with the grizzly reminder of our mortality, as above the door is the greeting ‘Nós ossos que aqui estamos, pelos vossos esperamos’ (‘We bones that are here, await yours’) and inside the chapel there are bones, lots of bones, covering every surface. The chapel dates from the late-16th century and was built by three Franciscan monks who wanted to create a place of prayer where they could reflect on the transitoriness of life. They moved the bones of approximately 5000 deceased monks from the many cemeteries, which were taking up precious space in Évora, into this chapel and used them to decorate the walls, pillars and ceiling and despite the materials being bones and skulls, there is a beauty to the way they have been displayed. The most macabre items in the chapel are two mummified corpses of a man and a child, which are now laid to rest in glass display cases, but in the past were hanging from a wall. The legend that accompanies these corpses says that they are father and son and that the son abused his mother and the father did nothing to stop it. As she was dying, the mother put a curse on them as she cried out ‘Que a terra de vossas sepulturas não vos desfaça!’ (‘May the earth not open for your graves’) and so they were not buried. The mood is lightened slightly by a recent addition in 2015 of an azulejo panel by the artist Álvaro Siza depicting the birth of Jesus and Mary and Joseph raising the baby Jesus to Heaven. At the far end there is a small baroque altar in gold and the ceiling is painted in a baroque style, although on closer examination the decorative items in the painting are skulls.

Church of Our Lady of Grace and Chapel of St Blaise

There were two final churches to which we felt it was worth making a quick detour. The first was the renaissance Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Graça (Church of Our Lady of Grace), built by the architect Miguel de Arruda between 1537 and 1546, in the Largo da Graça to which we wended our way to see the wonderful Meninos da Graça  (Boys of Grace), the nickname for the statues of grotesque Atlantean figures holding globes on each corner of the church roof. They represent the four continents of the world and the universal power of King João III (who was king at the time the church was built and during whose reign the Portuguese empire increased).

Os Meninos da Graça, Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Graça, Évora

The second church was the 15th-century Ermida de São Brás (Chapel of St Blaise) on Avenida Dr. Francisco Barahona on the southern outskirts of Évora which we passed on the way back to our hotel. A Manueline extravaganza, it is an early work by the architect Diogo de Boitaca, who is the architect most associated with the Manueline style of architecture (he is most famous for the Jeronimos Monastery in Belém). The exterior consists of crenallated walls, cylindrical towers, conical spires and arches.

Ermida de São Brás, Évora

First World War Monument

Nearby, in the centre of a roundabout, is an impressive First Word War memorial, Monumento aos Mortos da Grande Guerra (Monument to those who died in the Great War), sculpted by João da Silva in 1933. It depicts a winged woman on the top of the pedestal holding aloft a sword in one hand and a laurel wreath in the other and at the bottom of the pedestal is the chilling sight of four bombs.

First World War monument, Évora

This marked the end of our short visit to Évora. We had a bus to catch only 24 hours after arriving, but we had seen so much that I felt that we had been there much longer than that. The small city with such a rich history had got under my skin and I promised myself I would come back and next time spend a few days, seeing Évora at the slower pace of life that the Alentejans are famous for.

Practicalities

Colégio do Espírito Santo, University of Évora, Largo dos Colégiais. Open Monday to Saturday (excluding public holidays) 9am-8pm; entrance (as of 2018) €3

Museu de Évora, Largo do Conde de Vila Flor. Open Tuesday to Sunday 9.30am-5.30pm (November to March); 10am-6pm (April to October); entrance (as of 2018) €3

Évora Cathedral, Largo do Marquês de Marialva. Open daily 9am-5pm; entrance: cathedral and cloister €2.50; cathedral, cloister and tower €3.50; cathedral, cloister and Museum of Sacred Art €4.50

Igreja de São Francisco, Praça 1˚ de Maio. Open daily (except 1 January, Easter Sunday, 24 December (afternoon) and 25 December): 1 June to 30 September 9am-6.30pm; 1 October to 31 May 9am-5pm; entrance (as of 2018) €4

Vitória Stone Hotel, Rua Diana de Lis. We paid €83 for a double room (including a lovely breakfast) for one night in June 2018.

5amêndoas Restaurant (located in the Vitória Stone Hotel)

Arrival

Train: the train station is located 1km south-east of the town. Trains run from Lisbon and Beja.

Bus: the bus station is located to the west of the city (outside the city walls). Buses run from several places, including Lisbon, Beja and Faro.

Art, The art of Joana Vasconcelos: out of the commonplace into the rare

The art of Joana Vasconcelos: out of the commonplace into the rare

A Noiva (2001-2005)

Joana Vasconcelos (born in 1971) is one of Portugal’s best-known contemporary artists and is widely exhibited internationally as well as within Portugal. You may not know her name, but it is likely that you have seen some of her art, as it is hard to miss! She takes everyday objects and transforms them into something else in a surprising, funny or shocking way. Her most famous work is A Noiva (The Bride, 2001-2005) which put her on the international scene in 2005 when she exhibited it in the 51st Venice Biennale. It is an enormous five-metre high white chandelier that goes from ceiling to floor over two floors and from a distance it looks like it is made up of thousands of white beads, but close up I was shocked to see that it is made entirely of tampons.

A Noiva (2001-2005) (close-up)

Other commonplace objects that she has used include green wine bottles which she has used to create two giant candlesticks in Néctar (Nectar, 2006). I have seen this on display in the Buddha Eden sculpture park in Bombarral and in the formal garden of the Serralves Park in Porto and in both settings they were graceful structures that looked like they belonged in the beautiful grounds.

Néctar (2006)

Another sculpture where functional objects are used to create something surprisingly elegant is the seven-metre high engagement ring called Solitário (Solitaire, 2018) which is made up of gold-coloured alloy wheels with a diamond on the top created from crystal whisky glasses. (It’s not surprising to learn that Vasconcelos studied jewellery design as part of her art course at the Centro de Arte e Comunicação in Lisbon.) The ring merges seamlessly the stereotype of what men and women are seen to desire (fast cars and whiskey for men and a diamond ring for women). (Unfortunately on the day I visited the exhibition at Serralves they were dismantling this exhibit and were about to remove the ‘diamond’ when I took the photograph below.)

Solitário (2018)

The two giant silver stilettos in the work named Marilyn (2011) caught my eye from a long way away and made me laugh when I realised they were made of saucepans and saucepan lids! There is a clear feminist message in this work, where the symbol of a woman’s domestic role (the saucepan) is used to create the symbol of artificial beauty (the stiletto): both of which could been seen as images of women’s oppression.

Marilyn (2011)

My favourite work of Joana Vasconcelos has to be the large-scale teapot with its intricate wrought ironwork, Casa de Chá (Tea House, 2015), which I discovered unexpectedly in the grounds of Portugal dos Pequenitos in Coimbra.

Casa de Chá (2015)

In contrast the final work that I am including from a vast and varied catalogue doesn’t have the intricacy of the teapot, but is unmissable wherever it is positioned; it is a full-size swimming pool in the shape of the outline of Portugal and named Portugal a Banhos (Portugal Swimming, 2010). When I first saw it it was placed upright on a roundabout outside the grounds of the Serralves Park and I initially thought it was an advertisement for a swimming pool supplier, until I realised what the shape of the pool was and, like most of her work, it left me with a smile on my face.

Portugal a Banhos (2010)
Óbidos: a picture-perfect town fit for a queen, Centro region

Óbidos: a picture-perfect town fit for a queen

Óbidos is a picture-perfect Portuguese town located at the top of a hill and completely enclosed within preserved town walls. It was fittingly given as a wedding present from each king of Portugal to the future queen from the 13th to the 19th centuries, a tradition begun in 1282 when King Dinis gave the town to Queen Isabel and as a result it is nicknamed ‘Vila das Rainhas’ (‘Queens’ Town’) or ‘Presente das Rainhas’ (‘Queens’ Present’). We approached it on a warm September morning from the small pretty railway station at the bottom of the hill.

Óbidos station

After dropping our bags off at our hotel located just outside the town walls, we entered through one of two town gates built into the walls, the eastern gate, Porta do Vale (also known as Porta de Nossa Senhora da Graça, after the small chapel to Our Lady of Grace, originating from the 12th or 13th century and renovated in the 1720s by a man in memory of his daughter who was said to have died of a broken heart).

Porta de Nossa Senhora da Graça, Óbidos

Lunch was calling and we were attracted by a sign at the entrance to an archway advertising a medieval bar called Arco da Cadeia (Arch of the Prison). I love a building with history and this definitely had that, with original gothic archictecture that may have been part of a prison in the 15th century. The current owners have embraced the medieval theme and decorated it throughout with heraldry and weaponry from that period; thankfully my toasted tuna sandwich and orange juice didn’t date back that far.

Arco da Cadeia bar, Óbidos

After a quick lunch we were ready to explore, but before exploring the town we decided to visit the nearby sculpture park and wine estate of Buddha Eden in Bombarral, a taxi ride away from Óbidos, which I have written about separately. We returned to Óbidos later in the afternoon and as the town is so compact, we still had time to see the main sights. Just outside the town gate is the church of São João Baptista, one of the oldest churches in Óbidos, which was founded by Queen Isabel in 1308 or 1309 and is believed to have been part of a leper colony during the Middle Ages. She also ordered houses to be built around the church for people suffering from leprosy to live in. The church was rebuilt in the sixteenth century and again after the earthquake of 1755, when the ornate bell tower was added, and it now houses the Parish Museum.

São João Baptista Church, Óbidos

This time we re-entered the town through the southern gate, Porta da Vila (Town Gate), which dates from around 1380 and contains the shrine of Nossa Senhora da Piedade (Our Lady of Mercy) decorated with eighteenth-century azulejo tiles and a Baroque balcony. We were even greeted by a medieval knight in full armour!

Just after the Porta da Vila is a monument dedicated to Portugal’s most famous 16th-century writer, Luís Vaz de Camões, designed by the architect Raúl Lino in 1932 which consists of a stone column with the coat of arms of King Afonso Henriques topped by a castle and an inscription ‘Já lhe obedece toda a Estremadura, Óbidos’ (‘All Estremadura, including Óbidos, was now under his (King Afonso Henriques) control’), which is a line from Camões’ most famous work Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads) (in Canto 3) where he celebrates King Afonso Henriques’ victory over the Moors. There is also a memorial to this, dating from the 15th century, outside the town walls, next to the big car park.

Monument to Camões, Óbidos

We climbed one of the four staircases that lead to a sentry path along the top of the town walls, which were originally built during Moorish rule and later restored in the late 18th century (after the 1755 earthquake), and from here got wonderful views of the town below, the railway station, the distinctive hexagonal, solitary and slightly neglected-looking, 18th-century Santuário do Senhor da Pedra (Sanctuary of Our Lord of Stone), and the surrounding countryside, but the walls are not for the faint-hearted, as the path is quite narrow, there are no handrails and at some points the drop is up to 13 metres. I was surprised to learn that Óbidos had been an important port up to the 16th century, when the river silted up, as nowadays there is no water in sight. From the 16th century water was brought to the town via a three kilometre-long aqueduct, which is still standing, and which fed into the fountains of the town.

The full circuit of the walls is 1560 metres, but we exited the walls at the castle, an impressive medieval structure which retains features from the ninth century with added Manueline features (as on the windows) from the 16th century, when it was a royal palace. It is now a pousada (luxury hotels owned by the Pestana Group which are generally located in historic buildings). There is something quite fairy-tale-like about it.

As we left the castle my eye was drawn to a church that was full of books. I knew that Óbidos had been named the UNESCO City of Literature in 2015, so I wasn’t completely surprised to learn that the former church of São Tiago (St James) has been transformed into a bookshop, the Livraria de Santiago. The exterior of the building retains the appearance of the original church, which dates from the 12th century (although rebuilt after the aforementioned earthquake), and inside there are still original features, including the altar, and the hushed tones inside make it a natural place to have a bookshop.

From here it was a short walk to two churches that are still in use, the Igreja de Santa Maria and the Igreja de São Pedro. Firstly we walked down the main shopping street, Rua Direita, a cobbled street dating from the 13th or 14th century with whitewashed buildings which house souvenir shops and ginjinha stands and which runs from the castle to the Porta da Vila, until we came to the Praça de Santa Maria. The square is charming and at this late hour of the afternoon was relatively free of tourists. We were able to enter the church of Santa Maria, which contains works by Josefa de Óbidos, Óbidos’ most famous artist: to the right of the main altar there is a panel with five paintings from c.1661 which refer to the life of Saint Catherine and it is also thought that the paintings depicting the Baptism of Christ and the Ascension of Christ at the top of each side of the nave are by Josefa de Óbidos. Another noteworthy piece of art in the church is a Renaissance tomb sculpted in the 16th century by João de Rouão and Nicolau Chanterene, which includes a bas-relief of the Assumption of the Virgin above it and on the tomb is a wonderful sculpture depicting the Deposition of Christ in the tomb and not surprisingly it has been classified as a National Monument. The church also has azulejo tiles dating from the 17th century and an eye-catching Renaissance portal showing the Virgin Mary surrounded by angels. It is also widely reputed to be the church where King Afonso V married his cousin, Isabel, in the 1440s. The square also contains one of the aforementioned fountains and a Manueline granite pillory dating from the 15th century decorated with the royal coat of arms and a fishing net, a symbol which is associated with Queen Leonor (wife of King João II) whose son, Prince Afonso, died in a horse-riding accident in 1491 and whose body was brought back in a fishing net. The queen came to Óbidos to grieve.

From the Praça de Santa Maria it was a short walk along the Rua Direita to the Largo de São Pedro, passing the Municipal Museum, a former manor house dating from the 18th century, which contains works of art by, among others, Josefa de Óbidos, including the renowned portrait of ‘Beneficiado Faustino das Neves’ (c.1670). Unfortunately the museum was just closing as we approached, so I will have to leave that painting until another time. The Church of São Pedro in the Largo de São Pedro is distinctive by its bulbous bell tower. Although the church dates from the 13th or 14th century it was rebuilt after the 1755 earthquake destroyed it and inside the church the late-17th/early-18th-century Baroque giltwood altar dominates. To the side of the altar is a painting of Christ giving Saint Peter the keys to heaven painted by another local painter, João da Costa, in the late-17th or early-18th century. Josefa de Óbidos is believed to be buried in this church, but there seems to be doubt about where. Opposite the church of São Pedro is the Capela de São Martinho (St Martin’s Chapel), a Gothic-style private tomb chapel built in the early 14th century, which contains three tombs and is remarkable for withstanding the 1755 earthquake.

The light was starting to fade and we were in need to some refreshment, so we made our way back to the Rua Direita and bought two ginjinhas de Óbidos, a local speciality of Óbidos, which is a shot of cherry liquor served in a small chocolate cup and can be bought from one of the many stalls on the Rua Direita.

We then winded our way through the narrow streets of pretty whitewashed houses with blue and yellow borders back to our hotel, the Casa do Relógio, a former 18th-century manor house, named after the original sun dial on the wall beneath the terrace. There we enjoyed a glass of wine and the view of a small square below which contains the Hotel Real d’Óbidos in a nicely restored 14th-century building, the (appropriately named) Literary Man Óbidos Hotel located in a former convent and another of Óbidos’ fountains, while the sun set over the fields in the distance.

We finished the day at the cosy Muralhas Restaurant and Pizzeria, whose menu had a mixture of Portuguese food and pizzas. The walls were lined with azulejo tiles, the food and wine was good and the bill reasonable. We walked back to our hotel through the atmospheric deserted dark streets and it was hard to believe it was the same town as in daylight, but it was nice to have Óbidos to ourselves even for a short while.

Óbidos

Practicalities
Lunch: Bar Arco da Cadeia, Rua do Hospital, Óbidos
Dinner: Muralhas Restaurant and Pizzeria, Rua D. João Ornelas, Óbidos
Hotel: Casa do Relógio, Rua Porta do Vale, Óbidos. One night, including breakfast, cost €55 (as of 2017)

Getting there: Buses from Lisbon, Caldas da Rainha, Nazaré and Peniche stop outside the Porta da Vila. Trains from Caldas da Rainha and Valado dos Frades stop at the railway below the town. It is also possible to get to Lisbon by train from here, but it takes at least an hour longer than the bus.
It’s a bit of an uphill climb from the station to the town, especially with a suitcase, so allow 20 minutes.

1st May in Portugal: A day of workers’ rights and springtime rites, Festivals

1st May in Portugal: a day of workers’ rights and springtime rites

As in many countries around the world Portugal celebrates Dia do Trabalhador (Worker’s Day) on 1st May. It is a public holiday that is marked by parades and rallies by left-wing political parties and trade unions. These demonstrations for workers’ rights began in the late-nineteenth century, when 1st of May was named as International Workers’ Day, and continued into the early-twentieth century. It was renamed Festa do Trabalho Nacional (National Celebration of Work) during the oppressive right-wing dictatorship of Salazar and, later, Caetano, when any form of demonstration was violently quashed, and any celebrations on this day were organized and controlled by the State. Worker’s Day was reinstated in May 1974, a week after the Carnation Revolution that had overthrown the dictatorship, and over half a million people gathered in Lisbon to welcome the return of Mário Soares, the secretary-general of the Socialist Party, and Álvaro Cunhal, the secretary-general of the Communist Party, who had both been in exile, and to celebrate the freedoms of democracy denied during the dictatorship, such as freedom of speech and the freedom to gather in public. Nowadays, two of the largest rallies, organized by one of the main unions, the Confederaçāo Geral dos Trabalhadores Portugueses-Intersindical Nacional (CGTP-IN) (General Confederation of Portuguese Workers-National Inter-union), are held in Lisbon and Porto. In Lisbon they gather in the Praça Martim Moniz and march to Alameda Dom Afonso Henriques and in Porto the rally is held in the Avenida dos Aliados.

Long before it was named ‘Worker’s Day’, 1st May has had significance as a springtime festival which goes back to Pagan times and throughout the country, but particularly in the Douro, Beira-Alta and Minho regions in the north, is symbolized by the giesta bush (Cytisus striatus or hairy-fruited broom) with its yellow flowers known as Maias which are abundant in late April and early May.

Sprigs or garlands of yellow broom or other flowers are placed in door and window frames, on balconies and even on cars, agricultural machinery and animal sheds before midnight on the night of 30th April to bring prosperity, health, fertility and to ward off the evil spirit known variously, depending on the region, as Maio (May), Carrapato (Tick), Burro (Donkey), Bruxa (Witch) or Mau olhado (Evil eye). During the Middle Ages the Catholic Church banned pagan celebrations, including this tradition of placing flowers on the doors and windows, however, people got around this ban by giving it religious significance and the yellow broom became associated with the Bible story of the flight of Mary and Joseph with the baby Jesus into Egypt. It was said that in one village where the Holy Family was hiding an informer agreed to put some yellow broom on the house that was sheltering them so that Herod’s soldiers could find them, but when the soldiers arrived the next morning all the houses in the village were displaying yellow broom and the soldiers were unable to find them. In the Trás-os-Montes and Beiras regions chestnuts were seen as a way of keeping the evil spirit at bay, following a proverb: ‘Quem nāo come castanhas no 1˚ de Maio, monta-o o burro’ (‘Whoever doesn’t eat chestnuts on 1st May, will be ridden by the “donkey”.’).

 In the past it was common to venerate a May Queen on 1st May, which, depending on the region, was a variation on the theme of a young girl dressed in white wearing a crown of flowers on her head (symbolizing purity and personifying spring). She may have been seated on a throne around which other children danced and sang May songs, she may have walked around the village greeting the local inhabitants or, as in the Trás-os-Montes, rather than being a May Queen, may have been a Maio-Moço (May-Lad), who was a young boy dressed from head to foot in yellow broom whom the girls of the village danced around in a ritual meant to scare away the evil spirits. In Beja (in the Alentejo) a May Queen ritual has been revived in which very young girls dressed in white and with flower garlands on their head are seated on thrones, with small baskets in front of them, who are venerated by song and dance. The baskets relate to a tradition of asking for ‘Uma moedinha (or um tostāozinho) para a Maia que nāo tem saia’ (‘A penny for the Maia who does not have a skirt’). The name ‘Maia’ is thought to originate from Maia, the Roman goddess of spring and growth but the entreaty dates back to the mid-twentieth century when people did not have much money and had to beg for money to buy the basic necessities.

In the Algarve region it is common to see a display of life-size figures filled with straw, rags and newspaper, dressed in traditional clothes, doing everyday activities and accompanied by flowers and satirical verses. It is believed that this is based on an ancient Pagan tradition where people danced around a straw doll, known as a Maia, on 1st May, most probably as a fertility dance. The life-size figures appear at dawn on 1st May and can be seen outside houses or in the street in various places in the Algarve including Lagos and along the side of the main EN125 road between Marim and Alfandanga, near Olhāo. It is clear that a lot of thought and effort has gone into making these figures and there is now a competitive element as a prize is awarded to the best ones.

As this is a public holiday, banks, post offices and other public services are closed on this day (this includes some museums) and public transport runs to a reduced timetable. However, large shopping centres, shops and restaurants in tourist areas should be open as usual.

Portuguese cinema, The Murmuring Coast (2004)

The Murmuring Coast (2004)

The Murmuring Coast (A Costa dos Murmúrios) is a film version of the 1988 novel of the same name by one of Portugal’s most respected novelists, Lídia Jorge. It is set in Mozambique in the early 1970s, during the Colonial War when the Portuguese armed forces were fighting to suppress independence movements that were gaining momentum in the Portuguese African colonies. The central character is a young Portuguese woman, Evita (Beatriz Batarda), who arrives in Lourenço Marques to marry her fiancé Luís (Filipe Duarte), a lieutenant in the army and throughout the film we see events through her eyes. On the wedding day she notices a change in her husband, a former mathematician who while at university in Lisbon had discovered a new formula and liked to be called Evaristo Galois. He now no longer wants to talk about maths or be referred to by that name, however, the most significant change is in his patriarchal attitude towards her, telling her to ‘change the way you are. You don’t need to go around showing everyone what you think’. He is particularly angered by the way she voices her political opinions in favour of African independence to his misogynistic captain, Jaime Forza Leal (Adriano Luz), a man that he hero-worships and whom he emulates to the point that when Luís goes away to the front he asks Evita to stay in the room of the hotel without stepping a foot outside until he returns, just as Forza Leal’s wife, Helena (Mónica Calle), does.

The fighting at the front is never shown but we learn about the horrors through a series of photographs that Helena shows Evita. Photographs depicting the Portuguese soldiers, including Luís, committing atrocities on the indigenous people which Forza Leal has kept as proof of his commitment to the cause and that he can show to the relevant people when Portugal wins the war, as he believes it will. The reality is that things are not going well for the Portuguese armed forces and on his return from the front Luís is a broken man and he can no longer convince himself that the Portuguese will be victorious. Meanwhile Evita has taken on her own battle after discovering some suspicious-looking wine bottles on the beach that she believes are connected to the poisoning of hundreds of local indigenous people. Through this she becomes involved with a local journalist, Álvaro Sabino (Luís Sarmento), a man with whom she begins a dangerous affair; dangerous because it mirrors an affair Helena had which ended with Forza Leal killing the man in a game of Russian roulette. Álvaro is a complex character, as he is a white Mozambican and has strong roots in the country, including fathering several children with both white and black women, but who writes for the official Portuguese newspaper. However, he reveals his true allegiance to African independence in a poem that he manages to get published in a little read column of the newspaper, in which he speaks of Africa shaking off Europe and impaling her and, significantly, after Luís finds outs about Álvaro’s affair with Evita it is the Portuguese man who dies, not the Mozambican.

The dichotomies between those who conform and those who question the system and the belief in colonialism and the desire for independence, as well as the dehumanising effects of war, are represented by the four main characters who are convincingly portrayed, particularly by Beatriz Batarda as the outsider Evita and Adriano Luz as the menacing Jaime Forza Leal. Lídia Jorge’s lyrical style does not easily lend itself to adaptation into other genres, but the director, Margarida Cardoso, has sensitively created a cinematic version of the story without losing the essence of the novel. The Murmuring Coast provides some context to the Carnation Revolution of 1974 when a group of army officers, disillusioned by having to fight a colonial war in Africa that they no longer believed in, peacefully overthrew the right-wing dictatorship. The film slots neatly between Tabu (2012), which is partly set in Mozambique in the years just before the colonial war and April Captains (2000), which depicts the unfolding of the events of the Carnation Revolution on 25th April 1974.

Festivals, From abstinence to 'aleluia': Lent and Easter celebrations in Portugal

From abstinence to ‘aleluia’: Lent and Easter celebrations in Portugal


Crucifixion scene, Bom Jesus do Monte church

Ash Wednesday and Lent

After the excesses of carnival, life takes on a more sombre aspect on Quarta-feira de Cinzas (Ash Wednesday), a day which marks the start of Quaresma (Lent) and is celebrated in a secular way by the funeral of the carnival king and in a religious way by Catholics who attend a mass where a cross is made on the forehead using the ashes of the palm and olive branches from the previous year’s Palm Sunday service. Catholics in Portugal still adhere to the Church’s dictate that meat should not be eaten on Ash Wednesday or on any Friday during the period of Lent and furthermore that people should do a partial fast on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday. I prefer the modern take on abstinence, which is to give up something other than food (such as using social media) that you are willing to sacrifice for 46 days (or 40 days if you allow yourself a reprieve on the Sundays of Lent, when the Catholic Church permits the eating of meat).

In Óbidos the start of Lent is celebrated with a procession on the first Sunday of Lent known as the Procissāo Penitencial da Ordem Terceira (Penitential Procession of the Third Order) (also known as the Procissāo da Rapaziada (Procession of the ‘Gang’)), in which nine litters with statues of saints who were followers of Saint Francis of Assisi (including Saint Louis IX King of France, Saint Isabel Queen of Portugal, Saint Rosa of Viterbo, Saint Margarida of Cortona, Saint Bebiana and Saint Ivo), and Saint Francis of Assisi himself, decorated with flowers are carried through the town to remember the ideals of Saint Francis.

In Braga, the sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte on the outskirts the city holds a devoçāo da Via-Sacra (devotions of the Way of the Cross) ceremony every Sunday in Lent. The ceremony starts near the first chapel of the Via-Sacra staircase, goes to each of the 14 chapels (which represent the Stations of the Cross), at each of which a prayer is said, and ends with a celebration of the Eucharist in the church.

Via-Sacra, Bom Jesus do Monte, Braga

The week leading up to Palm Sunday was traditionally the week when people spring cleaned their houses. As well as the practical need to clean the house after the winter, it was also believed that a dirty house couldn’t be blessed on Easter Sunday. Women would take advantage of the spring-like weather and wash or air all the household linen, but a proverb regarding this reminds us that the weather can be unpredictable at Easter: ‘Na semana de Ramos lava os teus panos, que na da Paixāo lavarás ou nāo’, which loosely translates to mean ‘In the week before Palm Sunday (when the weather is good) wash your household linen, as in Holy Week you may or may not be able to wash (and dry) it (as it may be sunny or rainy)’.

Incidentally, April Fools’ Day on 1st April is known as Dia das Mentiras (Day of Lies) in Portugal and is marked by the media reporting hoax news stories, and Portugal celebrates Dia da Māe (Mother’s Day) on the first Sunday in May (not the fourth Sunday of Lent as in the United Kingdom and Ireland).

Holy Week

The week before Easter is known as Semana Santa (Holy Week) in Portugal and begins on Domingo dos Ramos (Palm Sunday), which is celebrated by processions representing Jesus’s entrance into Jerusalem on a donkey where the people welcomed him with palm fronds and olive branches. After the Palm Sunday mass, palm fronds, sprigs of rosemary, olive branches and bunches of flowers are blessed and people carry them in the procession and later take them home where they stay throughout the year to protect it from evil. Those left in the church are burnt and, as mentioned above, used in the Ash Wednesday service the following year.

On Palm Sunday it is traditional for children to give a gift of flowers or sugared almonds to their godparents. Holy Week is marked by processions and Biblical reenactments which take place over the course of the week. The most famous are in Óbidos on Palm Sunday with a procession of Senhor dos Passos (Our Lord of the Stations of the Cross) through the walled town led by a gafaú (a barefoot man dressed from head to foot in black holding a snake-like musical instrument called a serpentão (a wind instrument related to the tuba) who represents the executioner announcing the arrival of the condemned man)

and on Sexta-feira Santa (Good Friday) when a moving torchlight procession re-enacts Jesus being taken down from the cross and his burial, and the night-time processions in Braga in the north of Portugal acted out over several nights. These include the Procissāo dos Passos (Procession of the Stations of the Cross) on Palm Sunday, which depicts scenes of the day of the crucifixion of Christ as Jesus carries the cross around the city; a Biblical procession ‘Vós sereis o Meu povo’ (‘You shall be My people’) on the Wednesday which depicts scenes from the Old and New Testament leading up to the events of the Easter story (the procession is also known as the Procissāo de Nossa Senhora ‘da Burrinha’  (Procession of Our Lady ‘of the Little Donkey’), after the scene which depicts the flight into Egypt);

and on Quinta-feira Santa (Maundy Thursday) a procession of Our Lord Ecce Homo (‘Behold the Man!’), which is also known as Senhor da Cana Verde (Our Lord of the Green Reed), which represents the events in Gethsemane, the betrayal by Judas and the scene from the Easter story when the soldiers of Pontius Pilate mock Jesus being named King of the Jews by dressing him in a purple robe, putting a crown of thorns on his head and making him hold a reed in place of a royal sceptre. In this state Jesus is paraded through the streets of Braga led by Farricocos (barefoot penitents dressed in black habits with hoods that cover their entire face and carrying rattles, which they spin noisily, and fogaréus (tall lanterns that contain burning pine cones; the procession is also known as the Procession of the Fogaréus, after the soldiers who arrested Jesus, carrying torches)), and followed by the clergy, people dressed as characters from the story of the Last Supper and the sentencing of Christ, and a marching band.

A particularly emotive procession on Maundy Thursday is the Procissāo do Senhor da Misericórdia (Procession of Our Lord of Mercy, also known as the Procissāo dos Fogaréus (Procession of the Lanterns)) in Sardoal (near Santarém in the Centro region), in which all the street lights are turned off and the only light comes from candles and lanterns carried by the people in the procession, giving the procession a mystical atmosphere. Also on this day the lava-pés (foot washing) ceremony sees 12 people having their feet washed by the priest, representing Jesus washing the feet of the 12 disciples, before the Maundy Thursday Mass of the Lord’s Supper.

Good Friday is a public holiday in Portugal and marked by religious services and processions throughout the country. In Braga the Procissāo do Enterro do Senhor (Burial procession of Our Lord) is a silent procession with mourners accompanying Christ’s coffin through the streets. The mourners include Farricocos, but on this night they walk in silence.

For Catholics it is also a fast day and the main meal eaten on this day is cod. For many non-religious people, the long Easter weekend is an opportunity to go on holiday.

Easter Saturday

Sabado de Aleluia (Easter Saturday) sees a temporary return to the pre-Lenten silliness of carnival in places such as Figueira da Foz (near Coimbra), Sesimbra (south of Lisbon), Soutocico (near Leiria) and Vila Real (in the Trás-os-Montes region in the north of the country), with a decidedly secular celebration known as the Enterro do Bacalhau (Burial of the Cod). The ceremony marks the end of the period of abstinence from meat in which, in the past, dried salted cod (nicknamed the ‘fiel amigo’ (faithful friend)) was the staple food and during the evening, in a theatrical performance that takes place in the streets, the cod is satirized, tried, sentenced to death and, following a funeral procession behind a coffin with a cardboard cod on top, it is finally buried in the ground. One of the biggest productions in Portugal is the one in Soutocico which was first held in 1938 and takes place every four years with a cast of around 300, followed by a meal of cod for the performers and the audience served at midnight. The tradition of burying the cod originates from the sixteenth century when, although it was forbidden to eat meat during Lent, people could buy a dispensation, but naturally only the very rich could afford to do this. Not surprisingly, the act of burying the cod was seen as a criticism of the church and the ceremony was banned during the years of the Salazar dictatorship.

In addition to the Burial of the Cod, another highlight of Easter Saturday is a the Queima do Judas (Burning of Judas), which occurs throughout Portugal, usually with an effigy of Judas Iscariot being paraded through the streets of the town or village, hanged and then burnt or exploded with fireworks, symbolizing the destruction of evil as well as the end of winter and start of spring. However, in Tondela (near Viseu in the Centro region) the Burning of Judas is a large-scale theatrical musical production, dating from 1985, put on by the Cultural and Recreational Association of Tondela, which takes place in the municipal sports pavilion just before midnight. Rehearsals take place, at what is known as the Fábrica da Queima (Burning Factory), over the week leading up to Easter Saturday with over 300 teenagers from schools around the country being involved and attracting an estimated audience of 6000 people.

In contrast, a simple religious ceremony, the Bênçāo dos Borregos (Blessing of the Lambs), is held in Castelo de Vide in the eastern Alentejo on the morning of Easter Saturday when the lamb market is held and the priest blesses the lambs outside the church.

In the evening the people gather outside the church in a vigil known as Vigília Pascal e Chocalhada (Easter and Cowbell Ringing Vigil) waiting to hear the ringing of the church bells at the end of the service (around 11pm). At that time they start ringing their cowbells and make a procession through the streets of the town.

Easter Sunday

What must be one of the prettiest Domingo de Páscoa (Easter Sunday) religious processions takes place in Sāo Brás de Alportel (north of Faro in the Algarve region). The Procissāo da Ressurreiçāo (Procession of Resurrection), which is part of the Festa das Torchas Floridas (Flower Torch Festival), is marked by the men of the town carrying torches of flowers; there is a beautiful carpet of flowers on the ground and colourful bedspreads hanging over the balconies of the apartment blocks. As the procession progresses there are shouts of ‘Ressuscito, como disse!’ (‘He has risen, as he said!’), which is followed by more voices shouting ‘Aleluia! Aleluia! Aleluia!’.

Also in the Algarve is the Festa Pequena a Nossa Senhora da Piedade (Little Festival of Our Lady of Mercy, also known as Māe Soberana (Sovereign Mother), the patron saint of Loulé) procession which takes place in Loulé (north-west of Faro) on Easter Sunday when the statue of the Virgin Mary is carried through the streets to the church of Sāo Francisco. On 5th May, in a procession known as the ‘Festa Grande’ (Big Festival), the statue is then carried from the church to a shrine. This is an important religious festival and is considered to be the biggest one in southern Portugal.

In the village of Fontāo in Ponte de Lima, near Viana do Castelo (in the north-west corner of Portugal) a tradition that has been running for over 30 years, o Mordomo da Cruz (the Steward of the Cross), takes place on Easter Sunday. Despite the name, the main duty of the annually elected steward is to organize a lunch for the local people, which can be up to 500 people, at a cost of around €25,000. The women of the village prepare the meal, which includes traditional Portuguese dishes such as canja de galinha (chicken soup), cod, goat, veal, rice pudding, folar (an Easter sweet bread) and wine, while the teenagers of the village are the waiters and waitresses. At the end of the lunch the following year’s steward is named by the wife of the current steward by handing an orange tree branch to the successor. The name ‘Steward of the Cross’ comes from the fact that he carries the cross around the village in the Easter procession. This tradition, known as the Compasso Pascal (Paschal Visit), is still practiced in villages in the northern part of the country in which the steward, and sometimes the parish priest, will carry the cross from house to house to bless it and the people who live there and the householders will decorate their house with flowers or herbs to welcome the cross and offer food or drink to the cross bearer.

Easter food

As the long period of Lent comes to an end, people celebrate by eating meat, in particular roast lamb or goat in central and northern Portugal, while in the Algarve pork and chicken is more popular. No home would be complete without the traditional folar, but depending on the region it may be savoury or it may be sweet. In the Trás-os-Montes region in the north-east of the country they eat Folar de Chaves, savoury bread stuffed with meat such as ham, bacon and sausage. In the south they eat a sweet version called Folar de Olhāo, made with cinnamon and sugar. The most famous is the version with a boiled egg in the middle covered by a dough cross.

While chocolate is ubiquitous, a traditional gift at Easter time is sweets made of almonds, in particular amêndoas tipo francês (pink and white sugared almonds), amêndoas lisa cores (sugared almonds of other colours), amêndoas de chocolate or cláudias (chocolate-covered almonds) and amêndoas torradas or caramelizadas (caramelized almonds). Almonds are a symbol of fertility and renewal and to Catholics are a symbol of the resurrection of Christ.

A gift is traditionally given by a godparent to their godchild on Easter Sunday in return for the gift the godchild has given them on Palm Sunday and this gift usually takes the form of something sweet, whether it be a folar, pāo de ló (sponge cake) or almond sweets, however, these gifts are not just exchanged between godparents and their godchildren, but among friends and family. Segunda-feira de Páscoa (Easter Monday) isn’t a public holiday in Portugal, but it won’t be long until another Portuguese public holiday comes along!

Feliz Páscoa!

Dates of Easter Sunday up to 2029:
21 April 2019
12 April 2020
4 April 2021
17 April 2022
9 April 2023
31 March 2024
20 April 2025
5 April 2026
28 March 2027
16 April 2028
1 April 2029