When the Jardim Zoológico Metro station in Lisbon was expanded in 1995, the Portuguese artist Júlio Resende (1917-2011) was invited to decorate the walls of the platforms. He was inspired by the nearby Lisbon Zoo (Jardim Zoológico de Lisboa) to create large-scale hand-painted murals on the glazed tiles, depicting exotic animals and plants in tones of blue, green and yellow, so that the traveller is immersed in a lush Expressionist-style tropical forest.
The Siege of Lisbon (also known as the Conquest of Lisbon), which took place in 1147, is a significant event in Portuguese history. That year the newly crowned King Afonso I of Portugal formed an army made up of Crusaders from Northern Europe to overthrow the Moorish presence in Lisbon, promising them the spoil. Despite the attacks on St George’s castle, which enclosed the Moorish city, the Moors held King Afonso’s army off for four months, but eventually the Christian army gained entry, overpowering the Moors, and then going on to ransack the city and murder anyone who got in their way. There is a legend that a knight called Martim Moniz, who was fighting in King Afonso’s army, lay down in the doorway so that the Moors couldn’t shut it, thus allowing the Christian army to enter. Despite being badly injured, the legend goes on to say that he got up and continued fighting until he finally died of his injuries. He is considered a hero in Lisbon and there is a small bust of him on a wall in the castle and he even has a square and the adjacent Metro station named after him in Lisbon.
In the Metro station the story of the Siege of Lisbon is told on the walls of the platforms through stylised minimalist cartoon-like characters created in marble by the sculptor José João Brito (b.1941) in 1997. Characters include two horses; the two bishops, D. João Peculiar (who successfully negotiated with the King of León and Castile for Portuguese independence in 1143) and D. Pedro Pitões (who persuaded the Crusaders to join King Afonso I in his attack on Lisbon); Crusaders, represented by Hervey de Glanvill (the leader of the Crusaders) and Simon of Dover (the leader of the Anglo-Norman forces); D. Afonso Henriques (King Afonso I of Portugal); and, of course, Martim Moniz, shown throwing himself between the doors.
As travellers leave Restauradores Metro station at the Avenida da Liberdade exit they come face-to-face with a large colourful tiled mural by the Brazilian artist Luiz Ventura (b. 1930) called ‘Brasil-Portugal: 500 anos – A Chegança’ (which roughly translates to ‘Brazil-Portugal: 500 years – The Historical Folk Play’). It was completed in 1994 and added to the station to celebrate the 500th anniversary of Pedro Álvares Cabral’s discovery of Brazil in 1500. It is a depiction of a symbolic reenactment of the Portuguese explorers landing in Brazil and comments on the impact of the Age of Discovery. The Portuguese colonialists are shown aboard a caravel wearing expensive clothes and holding the navigational tools associated with the 15th– and 16th-century explorations, including a map, a compass and an armillary sphere, as well as one holding a book and pen and another, a soldier, holding a spear. They represent science, culture and military power. Also on board the caravel is a man in religious robes holding an open Bible and looking up to Heaven, representing the Catholic religion that the Portuguese brought to Brazil. Beside him is an angel and in front of her is a devil, symbolizing good and evil. In front of the devil is a chest containing chains and restraints, which disturbingly reminds us of the slave trade. On the left-hand side of the mural, outside of the caravel, are exotic fruits, flowers, plants, a bird, decorative pots and a mask, all representing the differences between the newly discovered Brazil and the old world Portugal. In the background is a caravel sailing towards the Brazilian coast, about to bring major changes to the indigenous societies. Look closely and you will see a ghostly figure on the far left of the group of Portuguese explorers, giving rise to a sense of uneasiness and foreboding.
Travellers using the Metro station at Cais do Sodré are greeted by a series of floor-to-ceiling-high rabbits painted in blue on the white tiles. On one wall the rabbits are running towards the trains and on the other they are running towards the exit. The rabbits, all wearing a waistcoat and carrying a pocket watch, are based on the John Tenniel illustration of the White Rabbit character from the children’s novel Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll (1865), who famously runs down the rabbit hole saying, ‘Oh dear! Oh dear! I shall be late!’ The paintings were done by Pedro Morais (1944-2018) in 1998 when the Metro station first opened, but they were based on sketches that the Surrealist painter António Dacosta (1914-1990) had done for the station before he died. The White Rabbit seems very a fitting image for a busy commuter station, where, like Alice, we follow him down the rabbit hole into the bowels of the station!
The Lisbon Metro was extended as far as the airport in 2012 when an additional section was added to the red line, finally offering a quick and easy link between the airport and the centre of Lisbon. The artwork on the walls of this station, which was added at the same time, shows caricatures of 50 famous Portuguese men and woman from the late-nineteenth century to the present day, ranging from the worlds of literature, art, music and film to science, politics and sport. Most are unknown outside of Portugal, but they are there as familiar faces to welcome returning Portuguese travellers and also to introduce themselves to curious tourists. The caricatures, which are made of white and black stone, were created by the cartoonist António Antunes and depict: Francisco Sá Carneiro (politician (Social Democratic Party) and former Prime Minister of Portugal, 1934-1980), Álvaro Cunhal (Communist politician who fought against the Dictatorship, 1913-2005), Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro (artist and ceramicist, depicted with his most famous creation, Zé Povinho, 1846-1905), Carlos Lopes (former long-distance runner, b. 1947), Paula Rego (artist, b. 1935), Mário Cesariny (surrealist poet, 1923-2006), Duarte Pacheco (engineer and politician who is associated with a number of public works, 1900-1943),
Carlos Paredes (composer and accomplished Portuguese guitar player, 1925-2004),
João Abel Manta (artist, b. 1928),
Vitorino Nemésio (writer, 1901-1978),
Aquilino Ribeiro (writer, 1885-1963), Júlio Pomar (artist, 1926-2018), Luís de Freitas Branco (composer, 1890-1955), Maria Helena Vieira da Silva (Abstract Expressionist artist, 1908-1992), Maria João Pires (pianist, b. 1944), Virgílio Ferreira (Existentialist writer, 1916-1996), Amália Rodrigues (Fado singer, 1920-1999),
Raul Solnado (comedian, 1929-2009), João Villaret (actor, 1913-1961), António Silva (actor, 1886-1971), Vasco Santana (actor, 1898-1958), Beatriz Costa (actress, 1907-1996), António Sérgio (philosopher, 1883-1969), José Saramago (Nobel Prize-winning writer, 1922-2010), António Egas Moniz (Nobel Prize-winning neurologist, 1874-1955), António Lobo Antunes (writer, b. 1942), Stuart Carvalhais (artist, 1887-1961), Amadeo Souza-Cardoso (artist, 1887-1918), Fernando Pessoa (writer, 1888-1935), Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (artist, 1857-1929), José Cardoso Pires (writer, 1925-1998), Alexandre O’Neil (Surrealist poet, 1924-1986), Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen (poet, 1919-2004), Fernando Lopes-Graça (composer and conductor, 1906-1994), Cassiano Branco (architect, 1897-1970), Porfírio Pardal Monteiro (architect, 1897-1957), David Mourão-Ferreira (writer, 1927-1996), Leopoldo de Almeida (sculptor, 1898-1975), José de Almada Negreiros (Modernist artist and writer, 1893-1970), Carlos Gago Coutinho (1869-1959) and Artur Sacadura Cabral (1881-1924) (aviators who made the first aerial crossing of the South Atlantic in 1922), Natália Correira (writer, 1923-1993), José Viana da Motta (pianist and composer, 1868-1948), Ferreira de Castro (writer, 1898-1974), Calouste Gulbenkian (businessman and philanthropist, he created the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, 1869-1955), Agostinho da Silva (philosopher, 1906-1994),
Eusébio da Silva Ferreira (football player, 1942-2014), Diogo Freitas do Amaral (politician (Social Democratic Centre Party) and former Prime Minister of Portugal, 1941-2019), Eça de Queiroz (writer, 1845-1900), and Mário Soares (politician (Socialist Party) and former Prime Minister and President of Portugal, 1924-2017).
Paula Rego is unarguably the most famous Portuguese artist outside of Portugal, particularly in the United Kingdom where she has mainly lived since 1951. She was born in Lisbon in 1935 and grew up in a wealthy family during the years of the dictatorship. Her father was a liberal and Anglophile who decided to send her to England to attend a finishing school and in 1952 to the Slade School of Art, where she studied under Lucian Freud and L.S. Lowry, among others. It was here she met her future husband, the artist Victor Willing (1928-88), with whom she divided her time between Ericeira in Portugal (a coastal town north-west of Lisbon) and London in the 1950s, ’60s and early ’70s before permanently settling in London.
Her early works were overtly political in theme, criticizing the rightwing dictatorship of António de Oliveira Salazar, and throughout the 1960s she created a number of, often impenetrable, works in which she experimented with collage and mixed media. In the surrealist painting entitled Salazar Vomiting the Homeland (1960) the dictator is depicted as a shape on the left of the picture being sick while in the centre of the painting is another shape of a woman made up of what appears to be pubic hair and holding a shield. The equally abstract triptych, When we had a house in the country we’d throw marvellous parties and then we’d go out and shoot negroes (1961), is a satirical reaction to Portuguese colonialism during the dictatorship and depicts a party scene in a white colonial house while outside white soldiers are killing the indigenous people as much for sport as for war. Using cut-out paper stuck on a blue background Regicide (1965) conveys the chaos that ensued during the assassination of the Portuguese King Carlos I and his eldest son, who were shot as they rode through the Praça do Comércio in Lisbon in a carriage in 1908. The carriage is the most recognisable item in the confusion. The Firemen of Alijo (1966) is an abstract reaction, using collaged fragments from other drawings stuck on a deep red background, to the extreme poverty Rego witnessed in northern Portugal one very cold winter, including seeing a group of firemen standing barefoot in the snow. In the picture she depicts characters comprised of human and animal body parts. Surprisingly, many of these controversial works were shown in an exhibition in Lisbon in 1965.
In 1998 Rego created a socially and politically motivated serious of paintings and drawings around the theme of abortion. These works came after Portugal had held a referendum about whether to legalize abortion or not in which people had not gone out to vote and so abortion remained illegal. Rego, who openly admits to having had abortions herself during her time at the Slade, as well as witnessing the desperate circumstances of poor women in Ericeira in the 1950s and 1960s, who would beg for money to have backstreet abortions, wanted to make people aware of the reality of abortion and made etchings of the paintings and drawings so that they could be shown throughout the country and seen by people who wouldn’t normally see art. In the paintings and drawings Rego deliberately avoided showing blood and gore, but instead focused on the complex emotional impact on the women; in each work there is a solitary woman shown in a room of a house during or just after a backstreet abortion; some of the woman have a look of pain while others look numb and other defiant. A second referendum was held in 2007 and in the lead up to the referendum the etchings appeared in some newspapers. This time the referendum was successful and abortion was finally legalized.
In 2009 Rego took on another taboo theme, that of female genital mutilation, creating nightmarish etchings with aquatint which depict monster-like women performing acts of violence on girls, such as Mother Loves You (2009), where the perpetrator is shown with jaw-like genitals with sharp teeth and Night Bride (2009) where two women hold the girl down while another is about to violate her.
Rego created War (2003) after seeing a photograph of a girl in a white dress running away from an exploding bomb in Basra, Iraq. The picture, done in pastel, contains violent images including the central image of a human figure with a rabbit’s head wearing a blue dress carrying a smaller figure wearing a pink dress, whose head is that of a rabbit covered in blood. In the foreground is a stork about to pierce the neck of another rabbit dressed in a pink girl’s dress and there is a miniature woman in a soldier’s uniform holding a stick, while in the background is a dog fighting an ant of the same size. This painting embodies a lot of the themes and imagery that Rego has used throughout her career.
In contrast to the political works, Rego’s art is often personal, with scenes based on memories from her childhood or aspects of her adult life. It is not surprising to learn that she has been having Jungian psychoanalysis since 1973 and based on the idea that images from childhood are deeply buried in the subconscious she uses stories to access these images and make sense of the world. The surrealist Self-portrait in Red (1962) (shown above) contains autobiographical elements far removed from traditional self-portraits. The background is bright red with a collage of fragmented images painted or glued on, including a figure of a young girl in the centre surrounded by images of grotesque children’s story-like characters. The very personal Depression Series (2007) was created during a bout of severe depression that Rego suffered in 2007 and the works were finally put on public display in 2017. Done largely in black pastel, they are a powerful and frank depiction of the darkness of depression and, as with the abortion and female genital mutilation series, Rego hopes to make the public aware of the issue and remove the stigma of depression.
A dominant, recurring theme in Rego’s work is family relationships. These works depict scenes heavy with symbolism that leave a sense of unease and conflicting emotions. She painted two of her most significant works in the late eighties, The Maids (1987) and The Family (1988). In her later works she uses a more figurative style in which women are often portrayed with manly features and the themes of domination, sexuality, fear and grief recur. The Maids is based on a play, Les Bonnes (The Maids, 1947) by Jean Genet, in which the maids murder their mistress. Rego’s painting sets the scene in a mid-twentieth century Portuguese middle-class bedroom laden with symbolic imagery, where the maids’ actions are ambiguous, but give rise to a sense of menace. In the unsettling painting entitled The Family, painted as Willing was dying, the mannequin-like man is seated on the bed being dressed, undressed or even sexually abused by two of the three females in the room. The characters are distorted and complex emotions, ranging from tenderness to anger, are suggested.
Rego has described herself as a ‘feminist’ artist and in her art she is not afraid to reveal the female condition through her female central characters. They are often depicted as large women with male features, as in the female painter in Joseph’s Dream (1990), a painting which reverses the traditional role of male painter and reclining female model; the central figure of The Cake Woman (2004); and Dancing Ostriches (1995), in which, influenced by Walt Disney’s animal dance sequence in Fantasia, Rego portrays stocky women in black tutus attempting balletic poses. She often uses the same sitter, Lila Nunes, as her model.
Other female characters, painted as glamorous women in fashionable clothes and with expensive hairstyles, are based on the middle-class women Rego remembers from her childhood and they represent the wicked mother or step-mother who is trying to arrange a suitable marriage for her daughter, as in Snow White and her Stepmother (1995), where the daughter is subjected to the humiliation of the stepmother removing the girl’s knickers, presumably in preparation for marriage. In 1999 she painted a series inspired by Hogarth’s mid-18th century depiction of an arranged marriage, ‘Marriage à la Mode’, but relocated it to a 1940s or ’50s middle-class Portuguese setting. Rego’s work is divided into three parts, The Betrothal, in which two well-dressed women plan the marriage of their respective children; Lessons, showing the mother, sitting under a hairdryer in a beauty salon, giving her daughter (still a child) lessons in marriage; and The Shipwreck, which shows the married couple years later living in obvious poverty with the wife holding the enfeebled husband on her lap.
In the 1980s she began to use anthropomorphic animals in her paintings, which allowed her to convey parts of her private life. In the ‘Red Monkey’ series she reveals the complications of her marriage through the characters of a monkey (representing Willing), a bear (representing the writer and close friend of Rego, Rudolf Nassauer) and a dog (representing Rego), such as in Red Monkey Offers Bear a Poisoned Dove (1981) and Wife Cuts of Red Monkey’s Tail (1981). Later in the decade she began the ‘Girl and Dog’ series, which was done around the time Willing was ill with multiple sclerosis and in which he is depicted as a dog being cared for or threatened, such as Two Girls and a Dog (1987).
In the 1990s she began the ‘Dog Women’ series, in which she depicted women in dog-like poses, although she had been using this dog imagery since her time at the Slade School, for example, Dog Woman (1952). The ‘Dog Woman’ series, done in chalk pastels, represents the relationship of animal and master, where women are depicted in dog-like poses. In Bride (1994), the frame is dominated by a reclining woman dressed in a beautiful white silk wedding dress who is looking directly at the viewer as if to ask them to rub her tummy, while in Lush (1994) and Sleeper (1994) a sleeping female figure dominates the frame. There is an intimacy to the portrayal of the woman in Lush, who is dressed in a petticoat and is sleeping with her legs apart, while in Sleeper there is an ambiguity to whether the way the woman is sleeping (lying on a man’s jacket) is a sign of loyalty to her master or a punishment. Sit (1994) is a more unsettling picture, as the pregnant woman is shown seated in an armchair with her arms behind her, her feet crossed uncomfortably and her head turned at an awkward angle.
Many of Rego’s works are reinterpretations of myths, works of literature and children’s stories. In 1989 (during which time (1989-1990) she was Associate Artist at the National Gallery in London) Rego created a series of etchings with aquatint in which she subverted the seemingly innocent subject matter of nursery rhymes and created something much darker, such as in Polly Put the Kettle On (1989), where two women, who fill the space of the etching, serve tea to a group of doll-like soldiers.
In 1997 she created a series of paintings inspired by the famous Portuguese novel by Eça de Queiros, O Crime do Padre Amaro (The Crime of Father Amaro, 1875) which tells the story of a priest who falls in love with the daughter of his landlady. Ideas inspired by the novel, rather than depictions of scenes, include The Cell (1997), in which Father Amaro lies on a campbed under which is a figure of the Virgin Mary and over which he appears to be masturbating; The Company of Women (1997), which conveys a memory Father Amaro has of being cosseted as a boy by the housemaids, but here he is shown as a man and the adoration of the women takes on a sexual tone as Amaro looks knowingly out at the viewer; and one of Rego’s most famous paintings, Angel (1998), in which Rego creates an avenging angel holding a sponge in one hand and a sword in the other to exact retribution for the death of one of the characters.
In 2001-2 she created a series of unorthodox lithographs, with sexual subtext, based on another classic 19th-century novel, Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre (1847), six of which were turned into British postage stamps in 2005.
Rego’s work often disturbs or shocks whether as political and social comment or through her inward-looking and autobiographical content, but throughout there is always a sense of defiance. Highly respected in Portugal and the United Kingdom, she received the Grã-Cruz da Ordem Militar de Sant’Iago (Grand Cross of the Military Order of Saint James of the Sword) from the President of Portugal in 2004 and was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the Queen’s Birthday Honours List in 2010 for her services to art. Many of her paintings, etchings and drawings, along with paintings by Victor Willing, are now permanently housed in the Casa das Histórias Paula Rego in Cascais, which opened in 2009. The collection is housed in a distinctive red building with twin pyramid-shaped towers designed by Eduardo Souto de Moura.
Casa das Histórias Paula Rego, Avenida da República, Cascais.
Open Tuesday to Sunday 10am-6pm. Entrance: €5.
Joana Vasconcelos (born in 1971) is one of Portugal’s best-known contemporary artists and is widely exhibited internationally as well as within Portugal. You may not know her name, but it is likely that you have seen some of her art, as it is hard to miss! She takes everyday objects and transforms them into something else in a surprising, funny or shocking way. Her most famous work is A Noiva (The Bride, 2001-2005) which put her on the international scene in 2005 when she exhibited it in the 51st Venice Biennale. It is an enormous five-metre high white chandelier that goes from ceiling to floor over two floors and from a distance it looks like it is made up of thousands of white beads, but close up I was shocked to see that it is made entirely of tampons.
Other commonplace objects that she has used include green wine bottles which she has used to create two giant candlesticks in Néctar (Nectar, 2006). I have seen this on display in the Buddha Eden sculpture park in Bombarral and in the formal garden of the Serralves Park in Porto and in both settings they were graceful structures that looked like they belonged in the beautiful grounds.
Another sculpture where functional objects are used to create something surprisingly elegant is the seven-metre high engagement ring called Solitário (Solitaire, 2018) which is made up of gold-coloured alloy wheels with a diamond on the top created from crystal whisky glasses. (It’s not surprising to learn that Vasconcelos studied jewellery design as part of her art course at the Centro de Arte e Comunicação in Lisbon.) The ring merges seamlessly the stereotype of what men and women are seen to desire (fast cars and whiskey for men and a diamond ring for women).
I’ll Be Your Mirror (2018-20) is another elegant work made up of oval mirrors, many with Baroque-frames. The mirrors are arranged into the shape of a carnival mask, symbolizing how we disguise our true selves and how that image is reflected back at us.
The two giant silver stilettos in the work named Marilyn (2011) caught my eye from a long way away and made me laugh when I realised they were made of saucepans and saucepan lids! There is a clear feminist message in this work, where the symbol of a woman’s domestic role (the saucepan) is used to create the symbol of artificial beauty (the stiletto): both of which could been seen as images of women’s oppression.
On a lighter note, Tutti Frutti (2019) is an unsubtle comment on excess, represented by a huge ice-cream cone made of hollow plastic moulds in the shape of croissants, apples, pears, strawberries and blackberries.
In contrast, a slightly disturbing work is Call Centre (2014-16) in which 168 black dial telephones are arranged into the shape of a pistol, a symbol of masculinity and power interconnected with a means of communication. The accompanying symphony of ringing phones composed by Jonas Runa adds to the unsettling sensation.
My favourite work of Joana Vasconcelos has to be the large-scale teapot with its intricate wrought ironwork, Casa de Chá (Tea House, 2015), which I discovered unexpectedly in the grounds of Portugal dos Pequenitos in Coimbra. On a similar theme is the equally intricate Pavillon de Vin (Wine Pavillion, 2016), which has vines growing around the wrought iron wine jug.
Portuguese crafts, traditions and recognisable symbols recur in Vasconcelos’ work ranging from the Barcelos cock depicted playfully in the Pop Galo (Pop Cock, 2016), an enoromous version of the famous cock decorated with Portuguese tiles, and the Viana heart recreated in Red Independent Heart (2013), a three-metre high revolving heart made of red plastic cutlery that is accompanied by the Fado songs of Amália Rodrigues, to smaller works that include traditional crochet, including three animal heads (Conselheiro (Advisor, 2014), Mustang (2014), Destemido (Fearless, 2019)), based on ceramics created by the 19th-century Portuguese ceramicist Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, and a statue of Diana (2020), the Roman goddess of hunting, all enclosed by delicate crochet. In Big Booby (2018) a common-place Portuguese crocheted potholder is enlarged and made into an abstract object. In Love in a Box (2015) traditional Portuguese Viúva Lamego tiles and crochet are combined to make an artistic joke; ‘love’ literally is in the box.
One of Vasconcelos’ most ambitious works is Valkyrie Marina Rinaldi (2014), an expansive piece that fills an entire room in any art gallery. Based on the female characters from Norse mythology who decide which soldiers would live or die during a battle, the Valkyrie Marina Rinaldi is given a modern twist by being dressed in various colourful fabrics and named after a clothing store for curvaceous women.
Another work on a grand scale is Finisterra (2018), which is a 3D version of an abstract painting in which the pattern is made of fabric-covered pillows in a frame. Unlike the traditional static paintings which it refers to, this one is literally bursting out of the frame.
In contrast the final work that I am including from a vast and varied catalogue doesn’t have the intricacy of Vasconcelos’ other works, but is unmissable wherever it is positioned; it is a full-size swimming pool in the shape of the outline of Portugal and named Portugal a Banhos (Portugal Swimming, 2010). When I first saw it it was placed upright on a roundabout outside the grounds of the Serralves Park and I initially thought it was an advertisement for a swimming pool supplier, until I realised what the shape of the pool was and, like most of her work, it left me with a smile on my face.
Anyone who has flown into or out of Faro Airport cannot failed to have noticed the wonderful sculpture in the middle of the roundabout at the entrance to the airport showing a group of people looking up at the sky. It is called Os Observadores (The Sky Gazers) and was created in 2002 by the sculptors Teresa Paulino and Pedro Félix in 2002, being the winning entry of a competition run by Faro Airport for students at the University of the Algarve to create a design for the roundabout. The figures are crudely carved in limestone and depict a disparate group of ordinary people, including a man with a suitcase, a woman with a dog, another woman with a child, a business man, a man with a book and a couple with their arms around each other, who are all caught in a single act of looking up at the sky. They appear serene as they watch the planes take off and land and the sight of them always makes me smile.
Portugal has a rich and varied art history dating back to the fifteenth century, but little is known of it outside of Portugal. Through the centuries there have been Portuguese artists who deserve to be judged as equal to the great artists from other parts of Europe and below is a brief introduction to some of those artists.
Nuno Gonçalves (active c.1450-c.1491)
The Renaissance painter Nuno Gonçalves is acknowledged as the founder of the Portuguese school of painting and the ‘Portuguese Primitive’style. He was the court painter to King Afonso V and in his most famous painting, Painéis de São Vicente (Saint Vincent Panels c.1470) he puts a religious subject in a contemporary setting making it an important record of Portuguese society in the mid-fifteenth century. It was originally part of an altar in Lisbon Cathedral and is now one of the prized exhibits in the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga in Lisbon. There are six panels, the larger two central ones both show Saint Vicent, the patron saint of Lisbon, in the foreground dressed in red and gold robes and surrounded by the nobility and other important members of Portuguese society, including the royal family and the Archbishop of Lisbon. In the other four panels other sectors of Portuguese society are represented, including knights, monks, a fisherman, a Jewish scholar, a beggar and a city official. However, it is debated who the actual members of the royal family are and in particular the figure in black to the right of the Saint in the third panel, who is generally thought to be Prince Henrique the Navigator, as it was painted during Portugal’s golden Age of Discovery, but there is a convincing argument that it is his brother King Duarte and that Henrique is in fact the kneeling figure in the fifth panel and that depicting him kneeling was a political attempt to humiliate him.
Jorge Afonso (c.1470-c.1540)
Jorge Afonso was the court painter to King Manuel I and his son King João III during the Renaissance period. He also had a workshop in Lisbon in which many of the foremost sixteenth-century Portuguese artists trained and worked, including Gaspar Vaz and Gregório Lopes. His work was influenced by the Flemish painters of the time as can be seen in the most famous work attributed to him, an altarpiece painted for the Madre de Deus convent in Lisbon in 1515, sections of which are in the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga in Lisbon, including the painting Aparição de Cristo à Virgem (Apparition of Christ to the Virgin) in which, on the right half of the painting, the resurrected Jesus, who is naked from the waist up and wearing a red cloth around the lower half of his body, appears before a kneeling, praying Virgin Mary dressed as a nun inside a convent-like building, with what appears to be a cloister in the background. On the left-hand side of the painting, in an exterior scene stand four people three of whom are thought to represent Adam and Eve and John the Baptist or one of the other apostles. Behind them is a turreted castle-like building. The detail in the decoration on the pillars and also in the depiction of the naked human form is impressive.
Grão Vasco (c.1475-c.1543)
Vasco Fernandes, better known as Grão Vasco (the Great Vasco) was born in Viseu and, like Jorge Afonso, was influenced by the painters of the Flemish school. Although little is known of his early life, it is assumed that he trained in Lisbon or even abroad as there is a high level of technical competence in his work, as shown in the majestic São Pedro (Saint Peter, painted for Viseu Cathedral c.1529), on display in the Museu Grão Vasco in Viseu, in which Saint Peter, dressed in a regal gown and wearing a crown on his head, is seated on a throne looking directly out of the painting. He is blessing the viewer with his right hand with an open Bible on his lap. Behind him in two symmetrical windows are two scenes from the life of Saint Peter: being called by Christ and meeting a risen Jesus as he flees from his own crucifixion. The painting show a mastery of technique in the characterisation in Saint Peter’s facial expression, along with the use of rich colour, detailed decoration and delicate light. Another noteworthy work is from the original altarpiece of Viseu Cathedral which in 18 panels depicted scenes from the life of the Virgin Mary, the early life of Christ and the Passion, painted between 1501 and 1506. The 15 surviving panels are now in the Museu Grão Vasco in Viseu, including a panel depicting the Adoration of the Magi (Adoração dos Magos) which is notable for the characterization of Balthazar as an Indian from Brazil shown wearing traditional clothes, a feather headdress and carrying a large arrow. Vasco’s representation, based on written accounts from the recently discovered Brazil, is thought to be the first image of a native Brazilian in Western art.
Gregório Lopes (c.1490-1550)
Gregório Lopes trained in the workshop of Jorge Afonso, whose daughter he married, and later became the court painter to King Manuel I andKing JoãoIII. His style shows a transition from the Flemish style favoured by his contemporaries to an Italian Renaissance style as shown in his most famouswork, Martírio de São Sebastião (Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, c.1536-38), painted for the Conventde Cristo in Tomar and now on display in the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga in Lisbon, which depicts a serene-looking Saint Sebastian in the central foreground of a landscape tied to a post wearing nothing but a cloth around his genital area with arrows in his chest. Either side of him in the foreground are two archers aiming arrows at him, while in the background is a city scene with people going about their daily life. On the extreme right-hand side there is a fire with thick smoke coming from it and a crowd has gathered to watch what is presumably an auto-de-fé. The colours are muted, dominated by shades of brown.
Gaspar Vaz (c.1495-1569)
Gaspar Vaz trained under Jorge Afonso in Lisbon and was a contemporary of Grão Vasco, also coming from Viseu, and their work is often confused, although his style is less technically competent and less detailed, particularly in the depiction of the human form. This can be seen in his painting Virgem da Anunciação (The Virgin of the Annunciation c.1530), done for the Igreja Matriz de Barreiro in Tondela, which now hangs in the Museu Grão Vasco in Viseu. In the centre of the painting the young Virgin Mary is shown seated, looking down with a serene expression on her face as she has just heard the Angel’s message, and her hands together not quite in prayer. A dove in a pool of golden light flutters near her head. A red curtain to the left of the painting contrasts with the brown of the wall behind her and the dark blue clothes she is wearing. While her face lacks character and her long thin fingers are anatomically incorrect, there is a delicacy in the way Vaz has conveyed light and shade in the curtain and her headscarf.
Cristóvão de Morais (active c.1539-80)
Cristóvão de Morais studied in Antwerp and later became the court painter to King João III and King Sebastião, painting many royal portraits. His most famous work, which can be seen in the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga in Lisbon, is the mannerist-style Retrato de D. Sebastião (Portrait of King Sebastião, c.1571-74), which shows the 16- or 17-year-old King dressed in armour with his left hand holding a sword and looking disdainfully at the viewer. Using a limited colour palette, the black background and dark armour dominate the painting, making the areas of colour stand out, namely King Sebastião’s face and hands and the richly ornate gold detail on the armour.
Josefa de Óbidos (1630-1684)
Josefa de Ayala e Cabrera (better known as Josefa de Óbidos)is Portugal’s most famous Baroque artist and a rare female artist at a time when most artists were men. Josefa lived in Óbidos all of her adult lifeand the name Josefa de Óbidos comes from the fact that she often signed her paintings ‘Josefa em Óbidos’. Her father, Baltazar Gomes Figueira, was also anartist who had spent some time in Seville and became interested in the bodegón style (a still life with objects from daily life, especially food and drink), which he shared with Josefa. She was educated in a convent and although she never took religious vows she lived a nun-like life, remaining chaste throughout her life. Many of her paintings have a religious theme, but she combines it with the everyday and there is a sense of innocence in them far removed from the traditional religious images. This can be seen in Agnus Dei (c.1660-70)) in the Museu de Évora in which the focus is on a lamb with its legs bound lying on a dark table against a dark background. On the table a line in Latin from the Bible, ‘occisus ab origine mundi’ (‘slain from the foundation of the world’) is written. All the light is coming from the lamb which lies serenely awaiting its fate (symbolizing Jesus Christ as the Lamb of God) and the only bold colour in thepainting comes from a Baroque wreath of flowers and grapes that surrounds the lamb. It is very reminiscent of the still lives with food and drink that she is most famous for. These are characterized by a horizontal arrangement of everyday objects in bold colours against a very dark background, as exemplified in the painting Natureza Morta: Caixas, Barros e Flores (Still Life: Boxes, Earthenware and Flowers, c.1660-70) in the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga in Lisbon in which two boxes, a glass bowl on a silver stand and a red earthenware jar are lined up horizontally on a table against a black background. There are large red flowers wrapped around the jar, which also extend into the background, and also small white and red flower heads scattered on the table in the foreground. The materials of the wooden boxes, the glass bowl, the silver stand and the red earthenware jug are skilfully conveyed from a palette of red, white and brown and the vibrancy of these colours draw the eye to the painting.
Domingos António de Sequeira (1768-1837)
Domingos António de Sequeira initially trained at the public drawing classes in the Caetanos Convent in Lisbon and then continued his training in Rome. On his return to Portugal he became the court painter tothe Prince Regent João (who later became King João VI) and painted many royal portraits and episodes from history in the Neo-classical style. In the 1820s he moved to Paris and then returned to Rome where he remained until his death. During this time he was influenced by the developing Romantic movement and his later works, many of which have religious themes, are in the Romantic style,focussing more on the emotions of the characters rather than on realistic depiction and are considered by many art historians to be his best works, as can be seen in O Beijo de Judas (The Judas Kiss, c.1820-30) in the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga in Lisbon. In this painting done in Indian ink and white gouache on brown paper he depicts Jesus being kissed by Judas while being surrounded by the soldiers who have come to arrest him. Jesus is lit up by a bright light that one of the soldiers is holding, while everything else is in shadow and this, combined with Sequeira’s relaxed brushstrokes gives the painting an emotional and disturbing quality.
José Malhoa (1855-1933)
José Malhoa is one of the main famous Portuguese Naturalist painters. He studied at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Lisbon and was later influenced by the French Barbizon school and was a founder member of the Grupo do Leão (Lion’s Group), a group of intellectuals, artists and writers who met in the Leão de Ouro café in Lisbon, in 1880. He painted scenes often showing ordinary people from the poorer parts of society, including Os Bêbados (The Drunks, 1907) on display in the Museu de José Malhoa in Caldas da Rainha, which shows a group of peasants in a state of inebriation after drinking the new wine on St Martin’s Day and O Fado (The Fado, 1910) on display in the Museu da Cidade in Lisbon, in which he captures the underbelly of the working-class districts of Alfama and Mouraria at a time when fado was performed ininsalubrious brothels and bars. The painting depicts a poor and dirty prostitute listening with rapture to a man playing the guitarra. In order to get authenticity, Malhoa used real people as models: namely, a petty criminal called Amâncio and a prostitute called Adelaide da Facada (named after a scar she had on her left cheek).
Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929)
Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro is considered to be the greatest late-nineteenth-century Portuguese painter, who captured the changing Portuguese society at the end of the century in his Naturalistic portraits. He came from an artistic family: his father was an artist and his brother was the caricaturist and ceramicist Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro. He attended the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Lisbon and then continued his studies in Paris. His work is characterized by his sober use of colour, often painting in brown tones, giving a dark appearance and with broad brushstrokes that lead to lack of definition. He painted many of the major figures of the time, including the writer Eça de Queiros and the Republican politician Teófilo Braga. Along with José Malhoa, he was a member of the Grupo do Leão and one of his most famous works is O Grupo do Leão (The Lion’s Group, 1885) on display in the Museu do Chiado – Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea in Lisbon. The painting, which was done for the café, shows the modern artists of the time (including the aforementioned José Malhoa (seated sideways in the foreground on the left with his hand on his leg) and Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro (sat on the other side of the table on the right, wearing a hat) as well as Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro himself (standing behind Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, wearing a top hat)) sat and standing at a table grouped around a central figure (António Carvalho de Silva Porto, the artist who introduced the Barbizon school to Portugal, sat in the middle on the other side of the table) in an arrangement which makes reference to the Last Supper. It is a huge monochromatic interior scene which is like a photograph in which everyone is caught in a moment looking at the viewer, but is made abstract by the use of light and shadows and blurred lines.
António Carneiro (1872-1930)
António Carneiro studied at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Lisbon and then moved to Paris where he became interested in the Symbolist movement. On his return to Portugal he became involved in the cultural magazine A Águia (The Eagle) as artistic director from its foundation in 1910 to 1927. He also taught in the School of Fine Arts in Porto, while continuing to paint. He painted a prodigious amount of portraits, but his real interest was in landscapes and over the years his style developed from the early Naturalist landscapes influenced by the Barbizon school to paintings which conveyed an expression of his personal response to the landscape, as can be seen in Contemplação (Contemplation, 1911), on display in the Museu do Chiado – Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea in Lisbon. In this painting a young woman is standing on some craggy rocks overlooking the sea. She is wearing a very large hat and we cannot see her face. The clothes she is wearing are painted in similar shades of light pink and purple to the rocks and sky and she has become part of the landscape. The painting is imbued with a sense of melancholy.
Eduardo Viana (1881-1967)
Eduardo Viana studied at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts inLisbon and then moved to Paris in 1905, where he became interested in the works of Cézanne and the Fauvist movement. On his return to Portugal in 1915, he lived with Sonia and Robert Delaunay, the founders of the Orphism art movement which used geometric shapes in bold colours. This further influenced his style and he began creating works that were abstract, such as A Revolta das Bonecas (The Dolls’ Revolt, 1916), on display in the Museu do Chiado – Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea in Lisbon. In this painting Viana uses circles, rectangles and triangles in contrasting colours to depict deconstructed dolls.
Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso (1887-1918)
Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso studied architecture at the School of Fine Arts in Lisbon for a year and then moved to Paris to continue his studies. There he met other ex-pat Portuguese artists, including Eduardo Viana and abandoned architecture to concentrate on painting. He also became friends with the avant-garde artists Constantin Brâncuși, Amedeo Modigliani and Sonia and Robert Delauney and after his return to Portugal at the outbreak of the First World War he set up the group La Corporation Nouvelle (The New Corporation) with the Delauneys, Eduardo Viana and José de Almada Negreiros, in which they were all experimenting with Orphism, influenced by Cubism but with abstract images in bold colours. However, it is hard to define Souza-Cardoso’s style, as he was influenced by many of the artistic movements of the early twentieth century and his work shows elements of Impressionism, Cubism, Futurism and Fauvism. His 1914 work Pelas Janelas (Desdobramento – Intersecção) (Through the Windows (Unfolding – Intersection)), on display in the Museu Coleção Berardo in Lisbon, is a Cubist-influenced painting in which he uses a series of simple geometric shapes in natural shades of blue, green, yellow and orange layered over each other to give perspective.
José de Almada Negreiros (1893-1970)
José de Almada Negreiros was a Modernist artist and part of the avant-garde Futurist movement. He was an artist in the fullest sense of the word, for, as well as paintings, drawings and murals, he also wrote novels, poems and essays, could turn his hand to acting and dancing and designed theatrical sets. During the Salazar dictatorship (which lasted from the 1930s to the 1970s) he managed to walk a fine line between his government-approved public works and his private works that were critical of Portuguese society at the time. He is most known for his richly coloured paintings with abstract geometric elements, as seen in the Retrato de Fernando Pessoa (Portrait of Fernando Pessoa, 1964), which can be seen in the Museu Calouste Gulbenkian in Lisbon and is a replica of a portrait he created in 1954 for the Irmãos Unidos restaurant in Lisbon, a restaurant that the Modernists would meet in. In the portrait of Portugal’s greatest Modernist writer, Fernando Pessoa is portrayed sitting at a café table with a cigarette in one hand and his other hand resting on a piece of writing paper which is lying on the table with a pen across it. Also on the table is a coffee cup and two books, the cover of the top one reads ‘Orpheu 2’ (the name of the Modernist literary magazine that Almada Negreiros and Pessoa created together in 1915 and of which only two editions were ever published). The predominant colours in the painting are bold reds and oranges in geometric patterns on the floor and back wall, with the solitary figure of Pessoa, in the middle of the painting, dressed in black with his distinctive hat, glasses and moustache.
Júlio Pomar (1926-2018)
Júlio Pomar studied at the School of Fine Arts in both Lisbon and Porto, but did not complete the course. In the 1940s he was influenced by the Neo-realism movement and around the same time joined the Portuguese Communist Party, and both of these influences were reflected in the themes of his work. Many of his works were considered politically subversive by the Salazar regime. By the early 1960s, when he moved to Paris, he had begun to move away from Neo-realism and was experimenting with other styles and even other media. Over his long career he produced works in various media, including painting, drawing, ceramics, sculpture and collage. The painting O Gadanheiro (The Reaper, 1945), on display in Museu do Chiado – Museu Nacionalde Arte Contemporânea in Lisbon, is an example of Pomar’s Neo-realism period. The painting is a portrait of a farm labourer cutting wheat with a scythe. However, the image is distorted with parts of the man’s body being out of proportion. In the foreground, the scythe dominates the painting as it moves through the wheat, which along with the storm clouds in the background, gives a sense of menace. The subject matter was politically subversive as, by putting the worker at the centre, it drew attention to the social and political situation of the working class in Portugal at the time.
José Escada (1934-1980)
José Escada was a painter and three-dimensional artist. He studied at the School of Fine Arts in Lisbon and then was part of the Movement for the Renewal of Religious Art (MRAR) and the Café Gelo Group with other artists in the late 1950s, before moving to Paris where he lived for 10 years. His paintings were abstract and later he created three-dimensional cut-outs and collages, inspired by Matisse, in which he explored the relationship between shape, light and shadow, as can be seen in Le Rève Argente (The Silver Dream, 1967), on diplay in the São Roque Antiguidades e Galeriade Arte in Lisbon. The relief is composed of cut-outs in aluminium emerging from the background creating concave and convex patterns, in such a way that the viewer gets a different viewing experience depending on where he or she is standing. In the late 1970s his work became more figurative and autobiographical, as can be seen in O Atelier (The Studio, 1979, private collection), a personal and intimate interior showing the artist’s view from his desk as he works of the room that has become his world.
Paula Rego (b.1935)
Paula Rego is without doubt the most internationally known Portuguese artist, having lived and worked in London since the early 1950s, where she studied at the Slade School of Fine Art and later became Artist-in-Residence at the National Gallery. She grew up in the Fascist dictatorship of Salazar’s Portugal in a middle-class family where wealthy women were encouraged to do nothing and many of her paintings reflect this repressive society. Her works are often disturbing and funny at the same time and her art is a place where she can explore her desires, fears and memories, as can be seen in the surrealist Self-portrait in Red (1962), on display in Museu do Chiado – Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea in Lisbon, which contains fragmented autobiographical elements far removed from traditional self-portraits. The background is bright red with a collage of fragmented images painted or glued on, including a figure of a young girl in the centre surrounded by images of grotesque children’s story-like characters. In her later works Rego has used a more figurative style in which women are often portrayed with manly features and the themes of domination, sexuality, fear and grief recur. In The Family (1988, Marlborough International Fine Art), painted as her husband was dying of a degenerative illness, the mannequin-like man is seated on the bed being dressed, undressed or even sexually abused by two of the three females in the room. The characters are distorted and complex emotions, ranging from tenderness to anger, are suggested, giving a sense of unease.
Joana Vasconcelos (b.1971)
Joana Vasconcelos is one of Portugal’s best-known contemporary artists and is widely exhibited internationally as well as within Portugal. She studied art and jewellery design at the Centro de Arte e Comunicação in Lisbon. She takes everyday objects and transforms them into something else in a surprising, funny or shocking way. There is often a feminist message in her art. Her most famous work is A Noiva (The Bride, 2001-2005) which put her on the international scene in 2005 when she exhibited in the 51st Venice Biennale. It is an five-metre high white chandelier that is made entirely of tampons.
The azulejo (decorative tile) is without doubt the art form synonymous with Portugal and it is fitting that it should have a museum dedicated to it, but the great thing about azulejo art is that it can been seen all over Portugal: on the facades of buildings, on walls of churches and palaces, and even in Lisbon metro stations. The word azulejo originates from the Arabic az-zuleij which refers to the smooth polished stones they used to create mosaic-patterned tiles and the azulejo art form in southern Europe originated with the Moors, who brought it to Spain in the eighth century. The Azulejo Museum (Museu Nacional do Azulejo) in the Xabregas district of Lisbon charts the history of tile-making in Portugal from the early Hispano-Moresque tiles to the present day and shows the changes in techniques and styles throughout the centuries, beginning in the early-sixteenth century when tiles made in Valencia and Seville were imported to Portugal. These were designed in an Islamic style comprising colourful geometric patterns and so that the colours didn’t run into each other during firing two techniques were developed: the corda seca (dry cord) method, in which a groove was carved into the damp clay; and the aresta (ridge) method, in which ridges were produced in the damp clay.
In the mid-sixteenth century, Italian artists came to live in Lisbon and brought with them a method of painting directly onto the clay using a tin oxide coating to stop the colours running and this allowed the tile to have a smooth surface rather than the grooves and ridges of the Hispano-Moresque tiles. This method, known as majolica, was adopted in Portugal and hence the Portuguese azulejo was born. Early Portuguese azulejo panels depicted religious imagery and one of the most beautiful examples is the retable of Nossa Senhora da Vida (‘Our Lady of Life’, attributed to Marçal de Matos, c.1580), which includes images of the adoration of the shepherds and St John.
The seventeenth century saw a great variety of styles developing in the azulejo art form. Azulejos de Padrão or Tapetes (rugs) were so named as they resembled Moorish rugs hanging on a wall. They usually comprised repeated patterns in blue, yellow and white and often had an inset panel depicting a religious scene. In this century the wealthy were decorating their houses with secular azulejo panels, often depicting battles from Portuguese history, episodes from the Discoveries, scenes from mythology, and hunting scenes. Techniques used to create Dutch delftware were adopted by the makers of azulejos and allowed artists to include more detail in their pictures. It was also popular to use exotic patterns on altar frontals, inspired by those on printed textiles imported from India, rather than traditional religious imagery.
A major change in the style of the azulejo occurred in the late-seventeenth century, influenced by blue and white porcelain imported from China, which had become fashionable in Portugal. Artists began painting pictures solely in blue paint on the white background of the tile and it is still the style most associated with the azulejo and is one reason some people erroneously assume the word azulejo comes from azul (the Portuguese word for ‘blue’). By the eighteenth-century Portugal had become the largest producer of tiles and in this decade panels depicting scenes of daily life, such as people on a terrace or a lady at her dressing table, and others decorated with colourful vases of flowers, known as Albarradas, became popular. The influence of the Baroque and Rococo movements resulted in azulejo panels gaining ornate flourishes, such as colourful borders of cherubs, shells and plants. After the earthquake of 1755 it also became common to cover the exterior of buildings with azulejos, to protect it as well as decorate it. To meet the demand an earthenware factory opened in the Rato district of Lisbon which produced tiles with simple repetitive designs for the walls of kitchens and hallways.
The mass-production of azulejos in the mid-nineteenth century meant that ordinary people could afford them and they were no longer just for the elite. However, one of the highlights of this period is a series of self-indulgent azulejo panels telling the rags-to-riches story of António Joaquim Carneiro, a wealthy Lisbon hatmaker. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries fashions continued to evolve, from art noveau works by the notable late-nineteenth-century artist Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, through the early-twentieth-century Art Deco movement to later-twentieth- and twenty-first-century works such as ‘Lisbonne aux Mille Couleurs’ (1937) by Paolo Ferreira, ‘Os Reis Magos’ (‘The Three Kings’, 1945) and ‘A Pintura e a Escultura’ (‘Painting and Sculpture’, 1954) by Jorge Barradas, ‘Camões’ (1988) by Júlio Pomar (from a panel in the Alto dos Moinhos metro station), and ‘Albarrada’ 2001 by Bela Silva (an homage to the eighteenth-century fashion for panels depicting vases of flowers).
The Azulejo Museum is housed in the former Madre de Deus convent which was founded in 1509 by Queen Leonor (wife of João II and sister of Manuel I who succeeded João II). It was built in the Manueline style, but much of it was damaged during the 1755 earthquake and it was rebuilt in the eighteenth century. However, some Manueline elements can still be seen on the façade and in the cloister with the Saint Auta fountain and geometrical tiles (although these tiles date from the nineteenth century). The church and the Chapel of Saint Anthony are wonderfully Baroque, with opulent gold decoration, panels of azulejos depicting biblical scenes and scenes from the life of Saint Anthony, ornate altars and paintings on the walls and ceilings. The café is also worth visiting for its eighteenth-century azulejo panels depicting fish and animals hanging up waiting to be prepared for cooking.
The pièce de résistance, on the top floor of the museum, housed in a room of its own, is a 23-metre-long panorama of Lisbon dating from around 1700 (attributed to the painter Gabriel del Barco). It gives a detailed view of how the city, from Xabregas to Algés, looked before the devastating earthquake of 1755. It is fun to try and find at all the recognisable buildings that survived, such as Saint George’s Castle, Lisbon Cathedral, the Madre de Deus Convent, the Jerónimos Monastery and the Belém Tower, but it is also fascinating to see the buildings that didn’t survive the earthquake, such as the Dukes of Braganza Palace and the Ribeira Palace (the former royal palace in what is now Praça do Comércio). It acts as an important historical document of what daily life was like in Lisbon in the early 1700s, with scenes of activity in the Ribeira market and on the river.
In the past the process of creating an azulejo panel was labour-intensive. A clay square was fired and then covered with a glaze onto which a picture was drawn and then painted with a special paint. Larger panels were painted as a whole and then each tile was numbered before the panel was taken apart and reassembled after firing. Nowadays the majority of azulejos are made in factories where each tile is printed by a machine. However, some are still hand painted and are keeping this most Portuguese of art forms very much alive, as the museum makes testament to.
Museu Nacional do Azulejo, Rua da Madre de Deus, Lisbon
Opening hours: Tuesday to Sunday 10am-6pm (closed Mondays, Easter Sunday, 1 May, 13 June, 25 December, 1 January)
Bus: 718, 742, 794 and the open-top buses
On foot: it is a 20-minute walk from Santa Apolónia station. Ensure you walk in a north-easterly direction along Rua Caminhos de Ferro (with the railway lines on your right) – we made the mistake of walking to the right of Santa Apolónia station and found ourselves in an unsavoury area underneath the flyover and not sure if we would be able to get across the railway lines (thankfully we were able!).