O Dia de Reis (King’s Day) is the Portuguese name for Epiphany and celebrates the arrival of the Three Kings at the stable where Jesus was born, bringing gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. In the past it was believed that Christmas presents were delivered by the Three Kings, but recently Father Christmas has taken over that role. However, on the night of 5th January it is still common for children to leave their shoes by the window or door with straw and carrots in them to feed the horses of the Magi who will visit during the night. In return sweets and cakes are left in the shoes as presents for the children. The Dia de Reis festival marks the end of Christmas and many families have a traditional meal similar to the Christmas Eve consoada, including the essential bolo rei (king cake). The next day all the Christmas decorations are taken down.
During the period between New Year’s Day and Epiphany it is common to find groups of people in rural areas singing traditional New Year carols known as Janeiras and Cantares dos Reis, accompanied by traditional instruments. (The Cantares dos Reis are similar to the Janeiras, but they relate to the story of the Three Kings and are only sung on 5th and 6th January.) It is reminiscent of the British tradition of carol singing, with the groups going from house to house in the village singing songs announcing the birth of Jesus and wishing the residents a happy new year, or even sometimes making fun of them. In return they are given food, drink, sweets or money. In some towns and villages people dress up as Biblical characters and re-enact the story of the Magi through the streets, often followed by music, food and wine, as in the Dia de Reis celebrations in Lagoa in 2016.
The lyrics of the Janeiras and Cantares dos Reis vary from region to region and each town or village will have its own traditions. To give you a flavour, this video clip shows a group of singers in Macedo de Cavaleiros in the Bragança district of north-east Portugal going around the neighbourhood singing Cantares dos Reis and enjoying the hospitality of the residents. While in the eastern Algarve there are musical groups known as Charolas who sing Janeiras accompanied by the distinctive sound of castanets, giving the Janeiras a very different sound to those in the north of the country.