Fado Museum, Lisbon, Lisbon, Portuguese music

Fado Museum, Lisbon

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‘Carlos Paredes’ by Pedro Guimarães, Fado Museum, Lisbon

Fado is the music of Lisbon. In effect it is the Lisbon equivalent of the blues, but with a uniquely Portuguese quality summed up in the term saudade, a word that doesn’t easily translate as it conveys a notion of yearning and nostalgia for what is lost, whether it be a place, a person or a way of life, and for what will never be attained and is particularly felt by Portuguese émigrés, who feel something more powerful than homesickness for Portugal. In fado music the singer is the conveyor of the message, both through the lyrics and more importantly through the emotion they express in their dramatic performance, often looking wistfully into the distance as Camané does or even bursting into tears mid-song as Mariza has done. The singer is accompanied by two seated musicians, one playing the viola (a six-string Spanish guitar), which acts as the rhythmic accompaniment and one playing the guitarra (Portuguese guitar), a 12-string pear-shaped guitar (based on the citra, which was introduced into Portugal in the eighteenth century, just before the birth of fado) and, with its steel strings, has a resonant melancholy tone.

The Museu do Fado (Fado Museum) is located in the Alfama district in the Edifício do Recinto da Praia, a former water pumping station.

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Fado Museum, Lisbon

It opened as a museum in 1998 to document the history of fado from its beginnings to the present day through photographs, posters, periodicals, paintings, music scores and lyrics, archive film, audio recordings, instruments and even a scale model of a brothel! The museum has an auditorium where a film of the leading fadistas (fado singers) talking about what fado means to them is shown and a listening room where you can listen to a variety of fado songs. If you like what you hear you can buy a CD in the gift shop!

The origins of fado (which means ‘fate’) are a little vague, but some theories say it originated from African or Brazilian dance forms, which evolved into song, while others say it came from North Africa or even from the sailors’ sea shanties. The truth is probably a mixture of all of them.

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The origins of fado, Fado Museum, Lisbon

It developed in the working-class districts of Alfama and Mouraria, and was mainly performed in insalubrious brothels and bars. The songs told stories of the lives of people on the edge of society and from 1860 some of the songs took on a political theme. The most famous fado painting in the museum’s temporary exhibition, ‘O Fado’ by José Malhoa (1910, on loan from the Museu da Cidade), captures the underbelly of these districts perfectly, as it depicts a poor and dirty prostitute listening with rapture to a man playing the guitarra. In order to get authenticity Malhoa used real people as models, a petty criminal called Amâncio and a prostitute called Adelaide da Facada (named after a scar she had on her left cheek).

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‘O Fado’ by José Malhoa, Fado Museum, Lisbon

In contrast to the seedy setting of this painting, a model of a brothel deceptively made in the style of a doll’s house depicts a rather genteel version of this profession (these types of discrete brothels were tolerated by the Salazar regime until 1962). It was made by the fadista Alfredo Marceneiro (a former cabinet maker) and is named Casa da Mariquinhas(‘Mariquinhas’ House’) after a song he recorded in 1961.

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‘Casa da Mariquinhas’, Fado Museum, Lisbon

The first fadista to gain fame and notoriety was the gypsy singer Maria Severa (1810-36), who led a short but intense life. She was a prostitute who was famous for a love affair she had with a nobleman and who died at the very young age of 26. Not surprisingly, a film of her life was made in 1931 (based on a 1901 play by Júlio Dantes) and she lives on in the memory of female fadistas, many of whom wear a black shawl as homage to her. By the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries fado had started to become popular in mainstream society with theatres hosting fado performances and periodicals dedicated to it, and in the mid-twentieth century it became widely popular due to radio and TV broadcasts and films featuring fado. The spread of its popularity was largely due to the singer and film star Amália Rodrigues (1920-1999), nicknamed ‘The Queen of Fado’, who performed in concerts in Portugal and in many countries abroad and introduced fado to an international audience.

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Archive film of Amália Rodrigues, Fado Museum, Lisbon

Despite its bohemian origins, fado had so become popular with the masses by the 1920s that the Salazar regime encouraged it, believing that fado, football and Fátima (religion) would keep the working classes quiet. Not surprisingly, from 1927 fado was regulated by the government meaning that lyrics were censored and fado was only allowed to be performed in licensed venues, which included the setting up of fado houses, which still exist today.

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Censored material, Fado Museum, Lisbon

After the 1974 revolution fado, and Amália Rodrigues, fell out of favour in the new democracy, as they were associated with the dictatorship. Nevertheless, when Amália died in 1999 there were three days of national mourning and her body is now interred in the National Pantheon in Lisbon. Fado reinvented itself in the 1990s, with a new generation of fado singers, including Mariza, Ana Moura, Carminho, Camané and Hélder Moutinho, many of whom mix traditional fado with other genres and bring in other instruments in addition to the guitarra and viola. Mariza, possibly the most internationally famous fadista, who introduced modern fado to an international audience when she appeared at the WOMAD festival in 2002, acknowledges the influence of Amália Rodrigues and has included songs made famous by Amália on her albums, such as ‘Barco Negro’ (‘Black Boat’), which was recorded by Amália in 1955 and by Mariza on her debut album Fado em Mim in 2002. The song tells the story of a woman on a beach watching as her lover leaves on a boat. The old women on the beach are telling her that he won’t return, but she refuses to believe them. The lyrics were written by the poet David Mourão-Ferreira, who along with other renowned poets, wrote many fado lyrics in the twentieth-century:

‘São loucas! São loucas! Eu sei, meu amor,/Que nem chegaste a partir,/Pois tudo em meu redor,/Me diz qu’estás sempre comigo.’ (‘They’re crazy! They’re crazy! I know, my love,/That you haven’t really left,/For everything around me,/Tells me that you are always with me.’)

In 2011 fado got full international recognition when UNESCO named it an Intangible Cultural Heritage worth protecting, largely helped by the fadista Carlos do Carmo, who acts as an ambassador of fado.

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Archive film of Carlos do Carmo, Fado Museum, Lisbon

In addition to the permanent exhibits the museum also hosts regular temporary exhibitions associated with fado and we were lucky enough to visit the museum during an exhibition of fado in art, which included the aforementioned ‘O Fado’ by José Malhoa. Other works on display included ‘O Marinheiro’ (‘The Sailor’) by Constantino Fernandes (1913, on lean from the Museu do Chiado – Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea), a triptych which evokes the spirit of saudade through the depiction of a sailor preparing for a voyage, saying goodbye to his family and then, once at sea, listening wistfully to a fellow sailor playing the guitarra.

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‘O Marinheiro’ by Constantino Fernandes, Fado Museum, Lisbon

Família’ (‘Family’) by Arnaldo Louro de Almeida (1947) is in the censored material section of the permanent exhibition as it was seized by the PIDE (Salazar’s secret police) presumably for not showing the working class family in the positive way he would have liked (or it may have been the woman breast-feeding a baby that was so offensive).

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‘Família’ by Arnaldo Louro de Almeida, Fado Museum, Lisbon

Lisboeta’ (‘Lisboan’) by the surrealist Cândido da Costa Pinto (1952, on loan from the Museu da Cidade) shows Lisbon and fado as inextricably linked through the depiction of a female figure with a tragedy mask for her face and a guitarra for her body.

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‘Lisboeta’ by Cândido da Costa Pinto, Fado Museum, Lisbon

However, it is the portraits of the fado stars that dominate, from the intimate portraits by Júlio Pomar to the large-scale works by contemporary artist Pedro Guimarães, alongside photographs of the stars of fado, one of which includes all the classic fado musicians (with labels to identify them).

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‘Carlos Paredes’ by Júlio Pomar, Fado Museum, Lisbon
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Fado stars, Fado Museum, Lisbon

Amália Rodrigues is quoted as saying ‘O fado é um mistério. Nunca ninguém vai conseguir explicá-lo!’ (‘Fado is a mystery. No one will ever be able to explain it!’), and like anything intangible this is true up to a point, but the fado museum goes some way to demystifying it.

Practicalities

Museu do Fado, Largo do Chafariz de Dentro Entrance: €5 (free on Sundays and public holidays) Opening hours: 10am-6pm Tuesday to Sunday (closed 1 January, 1 May, 25 December) The museum runs courses in guitarra and viola playing and fado singing. The museum’s restaurant, A Travessa do Fado, has live fado on some evenings.

Buses: 728, 735, 759, 794; Metro: Santa Apolónia

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Entrance tickets, Fado Museum, Lisbon

 

Portuguese music, Tunas – student troubadours in Portugal

Tunas – student troubadours in Portugal

Porto (0843)If you have visited one of the major cities in Portugal you may have seen groups of students in the street dressed in dark cloaks, singing songs and playing traditional instruments. These groups are called tunas universitárias. The tuna is an Iberian and North African musical tradition which dates back to the thirteenth century and is still prevalent in Portugal today. As in the thirteenth century, tunas are groups of university (and nowadays secondary school) students who sing romantic and sad songs or satiric songs about their university accompanied by traditional instruments such as the guitar, mandolin, cavaquinho (a small ukulele-like guitar) and tambourine. They also often perform a dance. Each tuna is part of a faculty of the university and the members of the group wear traditional dark cloaks and will have ribbons tied to their instruments which represent their faculty. They can often be seen performing in the streets of the city raising money for charity. However, in the Middle Ages in Spain the singers were known as sopistas, as they were poor students who had to literally sing for their supper of a bowl of soup (sopa) and many tuna groups still carry a wooden spoon as a symbol of this. By the sixteenth century groups of musicians were playing music for entertainment rather than survival and they became known as tunas. The word tuna is thought to have come from the name of the city of Tunis where a well-known troubadour lived, and is nothing to do with the fish (which in Portuguese is atum). Tunas first appeared in Portugal in the mid-to late-nineteenth century when students at Coimbra University were inspired by the tunas they had seen in Spain. The idea soon spread to Porto University and now tuna groups are all over the country. This tuna group was spotted performing on the Ribeira in Porto in June 2016.

Portuguese music, The Portuguese phenomenon of pimba

The Portuguese phenomenon of pimba

Long before Salvador Sobral put Portuguese popular music on the world radar by winning the 2017 Eurovision Song Contest there was another kind of Portuguese pop music, little known outside of Portugal, which is extremely popular throughout the country. It is called pimba and if you have been in rural Portugal in the summer you are likely to have heard it. At its most basic level pimba is an unsophisticated pop music with a repetitive melody, simple lyrics and often with an accordion and synthesiser accompaniment and its toe-tapping beats get people up and dancing, which is why it is so popular at the summer festivals that are held in the rural villages of Portugal in August, a time when many of the Portuguese who have emigrated to other countries for work return to their villages. However, the songs also reveal something of the Portuguese character and their sense of humour, as the lyrics of many of the songs contain different levels of sexual innuendo. The word pimba was originally used as an interjection, expressed at an unforeseen event, but it has now also taken on the meaning of kitsch and in bad taste or vulgar. The man responsible for this is a singer named Emanuel, who is 1995 released a single called Pimba, pimba in which the chorus goes: ‘E se elas querem um abraço ou um beijinho/Nós pimba, nós pimba/E se elas querem muito amor, muito carinho/Nós pimba, nós pimba’ (And if they want a hug or a little kiss/We …, we …/And if they want a lot of love and a lot of affection/We …, we …’). (The closest I can come to translating the word pimba in this song, which I have represented with ellipses, is the British English verb ‘to bonk’.) From this song the word pimba started to be used a term for this type of music, where the lyrics have a humorous sexual connotation. Two other very popular songs in this genre are ‘Ketchup’ by Quim Gouveia (1995) and ‘A Cabritinha’ by Quim Berreiros (2004). In Ketchup Gouveia uses puns to give the song a double-meaning, reminiscent of Benny Hill-type humour. The verse is very innocent, telling the story Manel and Maria who are buying ingredients to cook a fish stew when the bottle of tomato sauce breaks, and on one level the chorus is also innocent saying that Manel says to Maria ‘Queres ketchup?’ (‘Do you want ketchup?’), but in Portuguese the word ‘ketchup’ when pronounced ‘kay-ti-shoop’ is slang for oral sex (‘que te chupe’). A Cabritinha (‘The Little Goat’) takes the vulgarity to a different level. From the start the jolly acordeon music belies the distasteful lyrics which tell the story of a baby who was nursed by cows and other animals and now that baby is a man who can only get pleasure sucking on the teats of a goat. The line ‘Eu gosto de mamar/Nos peitos da cabritinha’ is repeated over and over in the infectious melody that gets stuck in the head. This song is so popular it has even been included on a compliaton CD of Portuguese summer party songs, Festa de Verão, where there are 37 similar-style songs, admitedly not all quite so vulgar as this song. In Britain we don’t really have popular music like this, we used to have novelty songs with innuendo and double entendres in the pop charts in the 1970s and ’80s, such as ‘Ernie’ by Benny Hill and ‘My Ding A Ling’ by Chuck Berry, which seem so innocent in comparison with the Portuguese pimba songs!

If you do get the chance to go to a summer party in a Portuguese village, usually to celebrate the local patron saint, you will definitely not only hear pimba music, but also get to watch the locals dancing the pimba dance, which is based on a Cape Verdean dance called the funaná, where the couples hold each other in a ballroom-type hold, moving the arm that is holding the other partner’s hand up and down rapidly, shifting weight from one foot to the other, which makes the bottom move vigorously from side to side, as they spin round. As well as being popular in the rural parts of Portugal, where the returning émigrés associate the songs nostalgically with home and summer, pimba music has also become surprisingly popular with students in the cities. Maybe they are finding a level of satire that with my level of Portuguese I am unable to see, but as one of my Portuguese friends says, ‘They are not the songs that we are most proud of, but every Portuguese person knows them!’